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174 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A belief that the world's supply of gold and silver was fixed, and a country could only change its economic position by discovering more or trading.

Parliament Adopted this idea in the 1660's

This encouraged their need for colonies.
Edward Randolp
A "Lord of Trade" sent to Boston in 1676 to enforce the Navigation Acts

Massachusetts was called to court against the Lords of Trade, and Randolph's testimony led to the annullment of Mass.'s charter in 1684
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in 1603

Governor of New France, which spanned across the eastern half of Canada and the U.S., under a charter as a trading company
Lucy Parke Byrd
Female colonist and wife of William Byrd II.

oppressed by laws and social customs. Women were treated as inferiors in 18th century
Pierre le Moyne, sieur d'Iberville
First to begin French settlement of Louisiana by landing a colony near Biloxi, Mississippi in 1699
Indentured Servitude
Voluntary Servitude used in the colonies in return for transportation from Europe.

After 1717, convicts could escape execution by becoming indentured servants

Limited rights while serving, but guaranteed freedom after four to seven years
Sir Edmund Andros
Went to Boston in 1686 and passed laws and levied taxes for England w/o the General Court of Boston.

He worked under James II's Dominion of England, which was declared in 1686 to enforce the Navigation Acts.

Andros expanded to Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey.
Triangular Trade
Transatlantic Slave Trade

1)England to Africa - Manufactured Goods

2)Africa to West Indies - slaves

3)West Indies/America to Great Britain - rum, sugar, tobacco and other raw materials
Thomas Coram
An enclish shipbuilder and dockyard owner.

Came to America (Boston) for the abundance of ifr and oak timber between 1697 and 1731.
Jonathan Edwards
Congregationalist minister in Northampton, Mass.

Largest Contributer to the Great Awakening

Denounced religious habits of the colonists

Gave revival gospels like Sinners in the Hands of Angry Gods in 1741
Sir Isaac Newton
Great Scientist in the 17th and 18th centuries

Gravitation, 3 laws of motion, physics, and astronomy
General Edward Braddock
A British commander-in-chief, in 1755. He attempted to conquer the French fort, Fort Duquesne.

This started the French and Indian War
Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind
Written by Benjamin Franklin in 1751

"land was plentiful and labor was scarce in colonies"

Noted that Europeans were moving to America and starting large families
George Whitfield
English minister in the colonies

Considered the "true catalyst of the Great Awakening"

sermons of the 18th century brought huge crowds
"slash and burn" agriculture
In North America even before the English

Clear forests and burn the underprush for agriculture and travel

Depleted the nutrients and force the habitants to move after 7 years

Changed the ecosystem of America.
John Peter Zenger
Tried for libel
Jacob Leisler
Hanged for Treason
John Locke
Essay on Human Understanding
William Pitt
British War Minister during the French-Indian War
Benjamin Franklin
Essays and Obeservations on Electrical Fluid
George Washington
Surrendered Fort Necessity to the French
Thomas Paine
Author of 1776 pamphlet Common Sense

One of the first to publicly denounce Parliament's power over the colonies

Encouraged colonial soldiers with his pamphlet The American Crisis
The Declatory Act
Passed by Parliament in 1766, along with the repeal of the Stamp Act

Said that Parliament had the power to make and enforce laws over the colonies

Meant to prove Parliament's power over the colonies
Noah Webster
Developed a spelling book in 1783 known as the "Blue Back Speller" which was used in all schools

Wanted to help Americans to become more distinguished and intelligent
John Trumbull

Painted pictures of the war

Most famous were the surrender at Yorktown in 1794 and the Battle at Bunker Hill
Daniel Boone
Settler of Kentucky that withstood the attacks from Indians, tories, and British

Wouldn't leave his land
Proclamation of 1763
Designed to pause westward expnsion of the colonies past the Appalachian Mountains

Officially established Queebec and Florida as British

Americans reacted negatively and moved anyway.
John Paul Jones
A captain in the colonial navy

defeated a british frigate in 1779

took over as their own ship sank

This is the mentality of the Americans.
Nathaniel Greene
"Fighting Quaker"

Washington's ablest commander during the Revolution

biggest battles were against Cornwallis
The Virginia Statute of Religioius Freedom
written by Thomas Jefferson

"no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place or ministry whatsoever"

"all men shall be free to profess, and by argument maintain, their opinions in matters of religion"

1786 set the religious culture of America
George Rogers Clark
Traveled down the Ohio River in 1778 with 175 frontiersmen. W/ some French allies he captured some British outposts in Virginia

Thought of as winning the west
Banastre Tarleton
One of Cornwallis's subordinates known for his savage and ruthless war tactics.

Lost a battle against the American militiamen at the Broad River
Townshend Duties
The Townshend duties were part of the 1767 Townshend Acts.

Places taxes on colonial IMPORTS of glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea.

Supposed to raise revenue, but placed hardships on colonists

All repealed by 1770 except Tea Act

Taxation without representation

Britian finally met America's demands in 1778
Crispus Attucks
A runaway slave in Boston. Marched with a group to confront soldiers about attacking a small boy

First innocent deat of the colonial resistance

Killed in the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770
Thomas Hutchinson
British Lieutenant-Governor and Agent for the Boston Stamp Act.

His home was ransacked by a mob protestin the Act in 1765

1772, announced his salary would be independent from the Massachusetts Assembly's decisions

demanded that the ship involved in the Boston Tea Party to land in Boston's ports
Richard Henry Lee
created a resolution of America's independence that was passed by the Continental Congress on July 2, 1776.

Free and independent states

Also called for a plan of confederation
George Grenville
New first minister in 1763 and first lord of Treasury

Tried to keep British troops in America despite rising costs

Passed a variety of acts to raise revenue from colonists

Molasses was replaced by Sugar in 1764

He passed the Stamp act in 1765

Tightened the waters and created a new maritime court
John Burgoyne
Lost the Battle of Saratoga
Thomas Gage
British commander at Bunker Hill
Charles Wilson Peale
Revolutionary patriotic painter
Horatio Gates
Won the Battle of Saratoga
George Washington
Commander-in-chief of the continental Army
Ethan Allen
Led the Green Mountain Boys
Alexander Hamilton
strong nationalist

Elected the first Secretary of Treasury in 1789

Wrote the Federalist and some reports on economic policy
Daniel Shays
Led 1,200 farmers in 1787 to rebel against economic pressures on agriculture

Subdued in Springfield, Mass.

This increased the Central Government's strength
James Wilkinson
General of the United States

Teamed with Senator Aaron Burr in politics

Believed to conspiring about seceding Louisiana from the U.S.
The Wealth of Nations
Written in 1776 by Scottish Economist, Adam Smith

promoted free trade and denounced mercantilism

became the handbook for economics and trade
Whisky Rebellion
Example of the central government's strength

1794 woodsmen and farmers terrorized taxpayers, court houses and Pittsburgh, because a tax had been placed on liquor.

When Washington ordered troops to put down the rebellion, they fled
The Virginia Plan
Proposed by Madison when the Continental Congress met to Revise the Article of Confederation

Trash the Articles of Confederation

Seperate legislative, executie, and judicial branches

Congress would consist of two houses one elected by the first

Congress could disallow state laws
Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed 1798 by Adams and Federilist governement

1) The time for naturalization lengthened from five to 14 years

2) Allowed the president to deport "dangerous" aliens

3) allowed the president to deport any alien during wartime

4) made it illegal to conspire against the government

Used to punish Republicans for expressing free speech

amined at political opponents
The Federalist
series of 85 articles between 1787 and 1788

Hamilton and Madison, Chief Justice Jay

in support for the ratification of the constiution

Republic would work because of diversity
John Adams
coined the phrase "critical period" for the time during the Articles of Confederation

First Vice President

Second President
Northwest Ordinance
Replaced Jefferson's Land Ordinance

1787 Required all new lands to have a government of congress, governor, secretary and three judges

60,000 people to apply for statehood

Banned Slavery North of the Mason Dixon

This meant that future terrirtories would be equal states, not colonies!!
XYZ Affair
last efforts of negotiations with the French

French negotiators wanted a bribe

This cause negative sentiment from all Americans towards the French
Edmond Gent
Caused the Americans to lose some support for the Revolution

As the French Ambassador, he wanted to go over the head of the government and interfered with British and Spanish politics.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolution
Passed in 1798 written by Jefferson and Madison

Declared the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional

Created the interposition and nullification doctrines

Gave the states power to question the federal government
Jay's Treay
Passed 1795 by John Jay

To get the British out of the U.S. they accepted the British definition of nuetrality

Great separation of powers

Unpopular because it screwed up foreign diplomacy
Report on Public Credit
Written by Hamilton

Two reports 4 issues

funding of the federal debt at face value

assumption of all states' debt from the Revolution

tax on liquor to raise funds

national bank with a national mint
Great Compromise
Proposed by Roger Sherman

Settled the debate of representation of states by population or equal representation

Differences in the Virginia and New Jersey plans

equally in the Senate, by population in the House
John Jay
First Chief Justice of the United States
Robert Morris
confederation superintendent of finance
James Madison
Father of the Constitution
Anthony Wayne
Led Americans at the BAttle of Fallen Timbers
Thomas Pinckney
Negotiated Treaty with Spain
Charles A. Beard
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution
John Marshall

Justice of the Supreme Court for 34 years

Courts could declare federal law unconstitutional

States could too

decisions of state courts could be appealed

federal government is supreme law of land

regulated interstate commerce
Samuel Chase

Justice of the Supreme Court

impeached by House in 1804 for the John Fries trial

Senate acquitted him in 1805 eventhough he was a federalist

political bias was not a factor
Oliver H. Perry
Navy at 14 yrs old
Commodore at 28

1813 Fought the British on Lake Erie in the War of 1812

When his ship the Lawrence sank, he rowed to another ship declaring the enemy was his
Francis Scott Key
Wrote the words to The Star Spangled Banner

Inspired by the standing flag after the British attacked Baltimore in the War of 1812
Treaty of Ghent
Singed 1814 Official end to the War of 1812

British had strong demands in early negotiations but lost all ground as the Americans won more battles
Second Missouri Compromise
Proposed by Henry Clay

Led to Missouri's statehood in 1821

Made Missouri promise that it didn't really mean that they weren't going to allow black or mulatto citizens
Gibbon v. Ogden
1824 Chief Justice John Marshall

Gave the federal government power to regulate interstate commerce

Between Aaron Ogden's exclusive right to run a steamboat from New York to New Jersey

and Thomas Gibbons' federal license to run a steamboat in the same waters
Monroe Doctrine
Came from Adams' annual message to Congress in 1823

Amercians were not subject to any more colonization

Any European power woul dbe endangering themselves by moving into Western Hemisphere

The United States would not interfere with any existing colonies

U.S. would stay out of all European affairs
William H. Crawford
Secretary of Treasury

1884 Candidate for President

Platform for states' rights and a strict constitution

His loss discouraged other candidates from running with a platform
Aaron Burr
While Vice President for Jefferson he ran for the Governor of New York under the radicalists Essex Junto's plan

Dueled and killed Hamilton after some negative remarks

Laid low then came back to the Senate in D.C.

Tried for treason but was protected by the Constitution
Hartford Convention
Ran by extreme Federalists in 1814

There was talk of secession

Some moderate Federalists just wanted to protest

Demands: disallowing the count of slaves in population for representation

requiring two thirds vote in congress to declare war or admit a new state

prohibit an embargo from lasting longer and 60 days

limit president to one term and presidency to natural born citizens and no two consecutive presidents from the same state

The convention ruined the face of the Federalist Party
Era of Good Feeling
Time of Nationalism

began in 1817 with Monroe's presidency and ended with a return towards sectionalism
Essex Junto
Led by Senator Thomas Pickering

Radical Federalists

Wanted to secede and was involved in the Hartford Convention
Embargo of 1807
Peaceable Coercion

Jefferson's attempt to punish France and England for their attacks and harassments of American Ships

could have destroyed U.S. foreign economy, but Americans continued to trade illegaly.

Hurt the U.S. and was repealed in 1809
Old Hickory
Nickname given to Andrew Jackson for his service in the War of 1812

Tough and strict on the battle field

Known for his victory of Red Stick Creek and Battle of New Orleans
Merriwether Lewis
1803 Assigned by Jefferson as commander to explore the Northwest past the Mississippi River

With Clark and the Corps of Discovery he opened up new territory and gave the U.S. the rights to the Oregon Country
Henry Clay
The Great Compromiser
Daniel Webster
Massachusetts senator who favored a protective tariff in 1828
William Marbury
Appointed Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia
Robert Livingston
Negotiated the Louisiana Purchase
Stephen Decatur
Naval hero against the Barbary Pirates
James Tallmadge, Jr.
Introduced the amendment to ban slavery in Missouri
Martin Van Buren
Secretary of the State

Rivalry with VP Calhoun for Jackson's support

Jackson's running mate in 1832 election

Elected 8th president in 1836

Independent Treasury Act in 1840 hurt the economy b/c no assistance to defaulting banks
Erie Canal
Proposed by NY governor Clinton in 1817

Finished in 1825 Hudson River to Lake Erie

Reduced Costs and helped NYC prosper
Henry Clay
Senator from Kentucky

Leader of the Whig Party (supporter of central government)

Internal improvements and distribution of the goverment's surplus of funds to the states
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 Supreme Court rules in favor of a labor union

Unions could demand that employers hire only from the union, and the union could strike if an employer did not meet that demand

Know Nothings
Racist group against foreignors

Third party in 1854, and declared to never vote for a foreign-born or Catholic candidate

They claimed they "knew nothing" about the organization

Elected many congressman but lost power when they became more concerned about slavery
Maysville Road Bill
Passed by Congress in 1830 but vetoed by Jackson b/c his hatred for Clay

Government was going to buy stock in a road that was entirely within Kentucky

Jackson said they would not fund intrastate projects (eventhough it was supposed to link the National Road)
Jacob Begelow
Lectured on "The Elements of Technology" in 1814

Popularized the word technology as a new advancement that changed the way of life

Regarded the many technological advancements of the 19th century
Working Men's parties of the late 1820's

Supported labor rights and reform

Couldn't survive as independents, became radical group of Democrats

name came from matches
Tariff of Abominations
Oficcially known as the Tariff of 1828

Intended to protect U.S. manufacturers aagainst competing British products

South Carolina protested that it hurt the South

Calhoun used nullification to declare in null and void b/c the constitution said that tariffs could only be used to raise revenue
Worcester v. Georgisa
Decided in 1832 for Worcester and Cherokee nation

Appeal of Georgia court's decision to punish two Indian missionaries to hard labor for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to the state

This was Georgia's strategy for taking land from the Indians

Was good until Congress and President Jackson went against the decesion.

Jackson said good luck trying to enforce it.

Worcester remained in prison and the Cherokee Nation was sent westward on the Trail of Tears
John Jacob Astor
Rags to Riches

Arrived in U.S. in 1784 with nothing and gained wealth through the fur trade

Then invested in New York real estate and became the wealthiest man in the Nation

Clay used him as an example for the American dream.
William Wirt
Maryland native elected for the 1832 presidential election by the AntiMasonic Party (the first third party)
pet bank
created after the collapse of the Second Bank of the U.S.

chosen from spoils system, many were not financially sound

Government had about $9million in deposits

1836 many of these defaulted
Samuel Slater
Helped Create the First American Factory in 1790

Stole plans for a water mill from England

Built it in Rhode Island
Specie Circular (1836)
Ordered by Jackson

Banks could only accept gold or silver for the purchase of western lands

Added stress to banks and only put more power in the hands of speculators
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina

VP, Senator, Representative, Secretary of War, Secretary of State

Nationalist, but turned to states rights when defending nullification of the Tariff of 1828

Defended slavery
John Eaton
Husband of the woman snubbed by wives of cabinet members
Francis Cabot Lowell
With the Boston Associates, formed the Boston Manufacturing Company
William Henry Harrison
Won the presidency with his "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign
Gail Borden
Invented the process for condensed milk
Nicholas Biddle
Attempted an earl re-charter of the Bank of the United States
Lyman Beecher
Preached strongly anit-Catholic sermons
Robert F. Stockton
1846, Confronted Mexican forces in California (territory claimed by the U.S.)

Took Santa Barbara and Los Angeles, so he declared himself governor of California

Teamed with Kearny to re-conquer southern Cali from Mexican rebels 1847
William Ellery Channing
Most inspiring leader of the Unitarianism movement

Unitarians=all powerful God, everyone can be saved

Also supporter of feminist
Sylvester Graham
Ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1826

Purity and refinement of the human body through diet.

Created Graham Cracker

vegetarianism and natural foods would cure the body of alcoholism and sexual urges
The Dial
Quarterly report of the Transcedental Club from 1840-1844

Edited by Margaret Fuller then Ralph Waldo Emerson

Transcedentalists believed in limits of reason, and intuition came directly from God
John Charles Fremont

Mapped Oregon Trail in 1842

1845 Set out for Cali and met Mexican opposition

Moved to Sacramento Valley in 1846 and declared it as the Republic of California (only lasted for a month)
Horace Mann
Greatest supporter of public school system in Mass. in 1800's

Sponsored and served as secretary of a state board of education

Sponsored teachers association, minimum school year of six months

Helped create state-supported normal school which trained teachers

Education is the road to equality
Dorothea Dix
two-year investigation of prisons and insane asylums

Reported to Mass. Legislature in 1843

Legislature of Mass and 19 other states took actions of reform by 1860.

Women made a difference in polotics!!
Brigham Young
successor of the murdered Joseph Smith as leader of Mormons

Negotiated exodus from Illinois and created Haven in Salt Lake City in 1847 and became governor
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Organized a meeting for women's rights called the Seneca Falls Convention wiht Lecretia Mott

Convention created the Declaration of Sentiments (all women are created equal)

Set the stage for womens rights movement during a time when women were sitll being degraded
Moby Dick
1851 Herman Melville

unsupported at first

Revenge on a whale for taking leg

Revenge turned good to evil
Catherine Beecher
leader of anti-feminist movement

supported education of women and founded schools

Wrote A Treatise on Domestic Economy in 1841 said the home is the "woman's sphere"
Walt Whitman
best and most inventive poets in America

dropped traditional English style of poetry and wrote in freestyle

1855 Leaves of Grass was best

Strong political views (abolitionist and free trade)
John Sutter
Swiss refugee evading arrest for bankruptcy

convinced Mexican governor of California to give him a large plot of land for Swiss immigrants

1843 erected a fort for the Americans traveling the from the Oregon Trail (created the California Trails

Gold was found in Sutter's Mill and caused the gold rush
William B. Travis
Led the battle at the Alamo against Santa Anna in 1836

10x as many Mexican deaths

encouraged rest of Texas to fight for independence
Joseph Smith
started the faith of the Church of Jesus Christ and latter Day Saints

Saw the Savior and God the Father who claimed all other religions were false

Led to last portion of the Bible

Arrested for polygamy and murdered in jail in 1844
Fifty-four forty or fight
54 40' was the proposed northern border of the Oregon Territory between British Canada.

Democrats demanded hthis but Polk compromised with the 49th parallel

The demands coincided with Manifest Destiny
Sam Houston
President of the young Republic of Texas
Winfield Scott
Led US forces at Vera Cruz
Abraham Lincoln
Introduced "spot resolution" in Congress, which meant that Congress had to pinpoint each spot that blood was shed
James K. Polk
"Young Hickory"
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Wrote Walden, or Life in the Woods
Tredegar Iron Works
Richmond Virginia

One of the very few Industries in the South

Used cheap and free labor to produce cannon, shot, shell, axes, saws, bridge materials, boilers, and steam engines
The Gadsden Purchase
1853, US bought 30,000 square miles from Mexico for $10 million.

Only land acquired by US in 1850s but completed the idea of Manifest Destiny

Connected the Southwest to expand to the Pacific by rail
The Ostend Manifesto
Drafted by Pierre Soule, American minister of Madrid and to France and Britian, in 1854

Declaration that the America would be "forced" to take over Cuba if it refused the American offer to buy it and appeared to be a danger
David Walker
Free Black man, pregressive abolitionist writer

Declared that all slaves should be emancipated immediately

Walker's Appeal of 1829 was outlawed in most Southern states
group of black people in South Carolina

Showed cultural ties of the slave communities

preserved the use of over 4,000 words from 21 different African tribes
Nat Turner
conspirator and leader of the only successful slave rebellion

1831 Southampton County, Virginia when slaves joined to kill Turner's master's household and the rest of the town

killed 55 white people and 17 slaves were hanged
Sojorner Truth
runaway slave freed in 1828

preached for abolitionism and women's rights during 1840s and 1850s

Her hardships were inspiring to the women
Wilmot Proviso
speech by David Wilmot on August 8, 1846 to the House of Reps

Declared that the US or its territories should not institute slavery in the lands acquired that did not already practice it (Texas)

Never passed but became the foundation of the Free Soil Party of 1848
Popular Sovereignty
used by political leaers to dodge the issue of slavery

Said people of the territory could determine whether they had slavery or not

Kansas-Nebraska act replaced the Missourie Compromise and used this theory
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852

depicted the stereotypical slave situation

revered by the antislavery forces

not debated b/c country was prospering
The Freeport Doctrine
Douglas: "slavery could not exist anywher unless supported by local police regulations"

after Lincoln asked how popular sovereignty could exist wiht the Dred Scott ruling of citizen's right to carry slaves into territories

came from Lincoln Douglas Debates in 1858
John Brown

Him, his five sons, and five black men occupied a federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia for a slave resistance

Lee and some marines busted in and stopped the resistance

This drove the stake between the North and South

Southerners began to question all Northerners
Crittenden Compromise
Proposed by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden

United States' last effort to compromise in order to stay united

Proposed amendments: extend the line of 36-30' as the boundary of slavery and maintain it where it existed

passed the House and Senate but was never ratified as the 13th amendment
Preston Brooks
Attacked Senator Charles Sumner in 1856 after Sumner had verbally attacked Butler for their practices of slavery

Made Sumner a martyr for the anti slavery movement
Matthew Perry
sent to Tokyo by President Fillmore in 1853 negotiate the release of American shippers and whalers

Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854 agreed to an American consulate, promised good treatment ito castaways , and permistted visits in certain ports for supplies and repairs

Relationship increased to limited trade
Elijah Lovejoy
antislavery editor in Illinois

kiled in 1837 by a mob outraged by the annoyances of the antislavery movement

Fueled the flames for abolitionists and compromised the right to free speech.
Edmund Ruffin
Studied the chemistry of soils to improve their productivity
Roger B. Taney
Chief Justice for the Dred Scott case
James G. Birney
Presidential candidate for the Liberty Party
Millard Fillmore
President before Franklin Pierce
George Fitzhugh
Wrote Cannibals All! Or, Slaves Without Masters
Stephen A. Douglas
Author of the Freeport Doctrine
Northern radicals within the Peace Wing of the Democratic Party

Wanted to end Civil War immediately

Lincoln considered their position as disloyal and treasonous
Hiram Revels
First black man to serve as a United States Senator, elected in 1869 by Mississippi because of Revolution

He believed in amnesty of the confederates and full citizenship
Robert Anderson

led federal troops to Fort Sumter

This outraged the South and led them to fire upons Buchannan's reinforcements

Anderson surrendered and this started the Civil War
Samuel J. Tilden
Democratic candidate for the 1876 election against Rutherford B. Hayes

Originally won election in but electoral votes were disputed by the Republicans

The two parties compromised and Hayes was elected president in exchanged for removal of troops from the South and Democratic acception of the Reconstruction amendments
U.S.S. Merrimack
ironclad steam frigate abandoned by the Union

Confederates picked it up, repaired it, and set out 1862.

Destroyed many Union ships, but fought to a draw against Union ship the Monitor
Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War under Lincoln

War Democrat in full favor of Lincoln's policies

Served for Johnson but disagreed w/ his Reconstruction policies

Johnson attempted to remove him from office, but was protected by the Tenure of Office Act, and let to the Radical Republican's power
Pickett's Charge
Last day of the Battle of Gettyburg

1,500 Confederate troops led by Pickett attacked the Union on Cemetery Ridge July 3, 1863.

Slaughtered and disenheartened Confederates and General Lee

Led to his surrender
Charles Sumner
Republican radical : abolition and confiscation of slave plantations

Believed Congress should consider the ex-Confederate states as territories

Advocate of Johnson's impeachment
Robert Gould Shaw
Led the North's first all-black military unit during the Civil War

1863 against Fort Wagner

Shaw and half of troop died, but encouraged black troops and emancipation
waving the bloody shirt
mud slinging by the Republicans in the election of 1876 about the Democrats involvement as Confederates
April 9, 1865

The city where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Grant and essential the end to the Civil War
Union League
Philadelphia 1862

under Republican Party

Helped spread the Republican party through out the South before reconstruction and helped the election of black delegates
Robert Smalls
black harbor pilot

took over Planter, Confederate boat

Joined Union Navy
Mulligan Letters
Released by James Mulligan

Linked to 1876 Republican candidate, Blaine, with questionable railroad deals

Fearful of the scandal, Republicans opted to elect Hayes as their candidate instead
Emanicpation Proclamation
executive order by Lincoln on Sept 22, 1862

As of Jan 1, 1863 all persons held as slaves within slave states would be freed

Only freed those in slave states
Hamilton Fish
Governor of New York the appointed Secretary of State by President Grant

From 3-1869 to 3-1877 he guided foreign policy as Grant's longest lasting appointment
Alexander Stephens
Georgian elected to US Senate in 1866
George B. McClellan
1864 Democratic presidential candidate
Pinckney B.S. Pinchback
Elected Lieutenant-governor of Louisiana
Thomas Jackson
Killed at Chancellorsville by his own men
Andrew Johnson
Said treason "must be made infamous and traitors must be impoverished."
William T. Sherman
Determined to "make Georgia howl."