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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Brain’s Primary Functions
1.Creating a Sensory Reality
2. Integrating information
3. Producing Behavior
Frontal
“Of the front” or, in reference to brain sections, a viewing orientation from the front
Sagittal
Parallel to the length (from front to back) of the skull; used in reference to a plane
Meninges
Three layers of protective tissue
1.Dura mater
2.Arachnoid layer
3.Pia mater
Dura mater
hard mother”; tough outer layer of fibrous tissue
Arachnoid layer:
like a spider’s web”; thin sheet of delicate connective tissue
Pia mater
soft mother”; moderately tough inner layer that clings to the brain’s surface
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Sodium chloride and other salts
Fills the ventricles and circulates around the brain and spinal cord in the subarachnoid space (located between the arachnoid layer and the pia mater)
Cushions the brain
Meningitis
Infection of the meninges and CSF
Cerebrum
Major structure of the forebrain, consisting of two virtually identical hemispheres (left and right)
Most recently evolved brain structure in humans
Cerebellum
Little brain, Located in the hindbrain; involved in the coordination of motor and possibly other mental processes
Gyrus
A groove in brain matter, usually found in the neocortex or cerebellum
Sulcus
A small cleft formed by the folding of the cerebral cortex
Fissure
A very deep sulcus
Brainstem
Central structures of the brain, including the hindbrain, midbrain, and diencephalon
Surface Blood Vessels
Anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries
Stroke
Sudden appearance of neurological symptoms as a result of severe interruption of blood flow
White Matter
Areas of the nervous system rich in fat-sheathed neural axons
Gray Matter
Areas of the nervous system predominately composed of cell bodies and blood vessels
Ventricle
A cavity in the brain that contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Corpus Callosum
Fiber system connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
Neurons
Carry out the brain’s major functions
Approximately 80 billion
Glia
Aid and modulate neurons’ activities
Approximately 100 billion
Nucleus
A group of cells forming a cluster that can be identified with special stains to form a functional grouping
Nerve
Large collection of axons coursing together within the central nervous system
Tract
Large collection of axons coursing together within the central nervous system
Nerve (correct)
Large collection of axons couirsinig together outside the central nervous system
The Spinal Cord
Controls most body movements
Can act independently of the brain
Spinal reflex
Automatic movement
Hard to prevent (brain cannot inhibit)
Example: Knee-jerk reflex (patellar tendon)
The Brainstem
Begins where spinal cord enters the skull
Produces movement and creates a sensory world
Three regions:
Hindbrain
Midbrain
Diencephalon
Hindbrain
Evolutionarily the oldest part of the brain
Contains:
Cerebellum
Reticular Formation
Pons
Medulla
Control of movement
Cerebellum
Controls complex movements and has a role in a variety of cognitive functions, as well
Size of cerebellum increases with the physical speed and dexterity of a species
Reticular Formation
Netlike mixture of neurons (gray matter) and nerve fibers (white matter)
“Reticular activating system”
Stimulates the forebrain:
Regulation of sleep-wake behavior and behavioral arousal
Pons (“bridge”)
Connects cerebellum to the rest of the brain
Controls important movements of the body
Medulla
Rostral end of brain
Vital functions:
Control of breathing and heart rate
Tectum
(roof of midbrain)
Sensory processing (visual and auditory)
Produces orienting movements
Tegmentum
Tegmentum (floor of midbrain)
Eye and limb movements
Species-specific behaviors
Perception of pain
Diencephalon contains:
thalamus and hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
Feeding
Sexual behavior
Sleeping
Temperature regulation
Emotional behavior
Hormone function
Through connections with the pituitary gland
Thalamus
Sensory processing
Motor processing
Integrative functions
Motivation
Memory
The Forebrain contains:
1. The neocortex
2. Basal Ganglia
3. Limbic system
Neocortex
Regulates various mental activities
-6 layers of gray matter
Creates and responds to a perceptual world
Basal Ganglia
Control of movement
Limbic System
Regulates emotions and behaviors that create and require memory
-3 or 4 layers of gray matter
Controlling motivational states
the cortex has four lobes
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
occipital
vision
parietal
tactile
temporal
visual, auditory, and gustatory
frontal
integrates sensory and motor function ; planning
Cytoarchitectonic Map
Map of neocortex based on the organization, structure, and distribution of the cells
Basal Ganglia
Collection of nuclei just below the white matter of the cortex
Key: caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus
Controls voluntary movement
Related disorders
Parkinson’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome
Limbic System
Group of structures between the neocortex and brain stem
Key: cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala
Regulation of
Emotional and sexual behaviors
Memory
Spatial navigation
Dermatome
Area of the skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single spinal-cord dorsal root
Law of Bell and Magendie
The general principle that sensory fibers are located dorsally and motor fibers are located ventrally
Sympathetic System
Arouses the body for action (e.g., increase heart rate and blood pressure)
Mediates the “fight or flight” response