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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AAA Code of Ethics
states that anthropologists have obligations to their scholoarly field, to the wider societ and culture, and to the human species, other species and the environment
host country
where research takes place
paleoanthropology
study of human evolution through the fossil record
physical anthropologists and archaeologists interests
p.a. interested in bones
arch. interested in artifacts
informed consent
agreement to take part in the research--after having been informed about its nature, procedures, and possible impacts
North Americans working in other countries should:
1. include host country colleagues in their research planning and requests for funding
2. establish truly collaborative relationships with those colleagues and their institutions before, during and after field work
3. include host country colleagues in dissemination, including publication of the research results
4. ensure that something is "given back" to host country colleagues
paleontology
the study of ancient life through the fossil record
palynology
the study of ancient plants through pollen samples
anthropometry
measurement of human body parts and dimensions, including skeletal parts; done on living as well as skeletal remains; body mass and composition provide measures of nutritional status in living people
bone biology (skeletal biology)
study of bone as a biological tissue, including its genetics, cell structure, growth, development, and decay, and patterns of movement
paleopathology
study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites; help locate fossil beds containing remains of animals that can be dated and that are known to have coexisted with hominids at various time periods
molecular anthropology
uses genetic analysis to assess evolutionary links; studies relationships among ancient and contemporary populations and among species
systematic survey
provides a regional perspective by gathering information on settlement patterns over a large area;reconstruct settlement areas
excavation
scientists recoverremains by digging through the cultural and natural stratigraphy (layers of deposits that make up a site)
kinds of archaeology
experimental, historic, colonial, classical, underwater (pg29,30)
taphonomy
study of the processes that affect the remains of dead animals
relative dating
provides a time frame in relation to other strata or materials rather than absolute dates in numbers
stratigraphy
scince that examines the ways in which earth sediments accumulate in layers known as strata; permits relative dating
absolute dating
fossils can be dated more precisely, with dates in numbers
carbon-14 dating
potassium argon dating
uranium series
thermoluminescence
electron spin resonance
participant observation
taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing
9 Ethnographic Techniques
1. participant observation
2. interviews
3. genealoical method
4. key consultants or informants
5. life histories
6. discovery of local beliefs and perceptions
7. problem oriented research
8. longitudinal research
9. team research
diary vs. field notes
diary is more personal reaction, fieldnotes are observations
rapport
good, friendly working relationship based on personal contact, with the hosts
interview schedule
face-to-face conversation asking questions and writing down answers
questionnaire
more indirect and impersonal; filling out forms
genealogical method
well-established ethnographic technique; notation and symbols to deal with kinship, descent, and marriage; helps understand current social relations and to reconstruct history
life history
provides a more intimate and personal cultural portrait than would be possible otherwise
emic
investigates how local eople think; "native view point"
cultural consultant
individuals the ethnographer gets to know in the field who teach him or her about their culture, who provide the emic perspective
etic
shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist; realizes that members of a culture are often too involved in what they are doing to interpret their cultures impartially
longitudinal research
long-term study of a community, region, society, culture, or other unit, usually based on repeated visits
survey research
involves sampling, impersonal data collection, and statistical analysis
sample
a manageable study group
respondents
people being studied
random sample
all members of the population have an equal statistical chance of being chosen for inclusion
variables
attributes that vary among members of a sample or population
complex societies
large and populous societies with social stratification and central governments
social indicators
predictor variables that influence behavior and opinions