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21 Cards in this Set

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oxidation
when an atom or molecule looses an electron.
reduction
when an atom or molecule gains an electron.
Atomic energy levels
When an electron absorbs energy it moves to a higher energy leve l farther from the nucleus.
Covalent bond
When two atoms share one or more pais of valence electrons.
Cohesion
When water is attracted to other water molecules.
Adhesion
When water molecules are attracted to a different substance.
pH
The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
Acids
Any substance that increases the pH.
Acidic Solutions
Have a pH value lower than 7. The stronger the acid is the more H+ ions it produces and the lower the pH is.
Bases
A substance that combines with H+ ions when dissolved in water. H+ plus bases lowers the H+ ions.
Properties of Carbon.
Carbon contains 4 covalent electrons so it can create 4 bonds.
Hydrocarbons
Covalent bonds between carbon and hydrogen. They store alot of energy, gasoline is a hydrocarbon.
Contents of an aminoacid
Contains
1. amino group.
2. carboxyl group.
3. hydrogen atom.
Peptide Bond
A covalent bond that links to aminoacids
contents of DNA & RNA and how can they pair.
pyrimidines:
Cytosine (DNA & RNA)
Thymine (DNA ONLY)
Uracil (RNA ONLY)

Purines
Adenine
Guanine

Adenine only pairs with Thymine.
Cytosine only pairs with guanine
Structure of phospholipids
Charged organic molecule.
Phosphate group.
Glycerol
Fatty acid
Structure of Fats
Glycerol attaches to three fatty acids.
Saturate Fat
Contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
Unsaturated Fats
When it has any double bonds between the hydrogen atoms.
Celullose & Chitin
Cellulose in plans and chitin in arthropods, are chains of sugars that resist digestion.
Transport and Storage Carbs.
Starches are glucose polymers found in plants, while glycogen is the animal version of starch.