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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the major trait theories of personality
~Allport's Trait Theory
~Cattell's 16PF Factor Analysis of Traits
~The Big Five Fundamental Traits
A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life
To Carl Jung, universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, dreams, and other expressions of the collective unconscious
behavioral genetics
An interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of behavior and personality
A psychological approach that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior
collective unconscious
To Carl Jung, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the unconscious images and symbols of all people
A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community
defense mechanisms
Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or keep threatening thoughts from consciousness
In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control
existential psychology
An approach to psychology that emphasizes free will, responsibility for one's actions, and the inevitable anxieties of existence such as the need to find meaning in life and to accept suffering and death
A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait within a group that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within the group.
humanistic psychology
A Psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior.
In psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychological energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts
A process by which the child adopts an adult's standards of morality, values, and beliefs as his or her own; in psychoanalysis, identification with the same-sex parent is said to occur at resolution of the Oedipus complex.
Within the mind (psyche) or self
In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id.
locus of control
A general expectation about whether the results of one's actions are under one's own control (internal locus) or beyond one's control (external locus).
monochronic cultures
Cultures in which time is organized sequentially; schedules and deadlines are valued over people
polychronic cultures
Cultures in which time is organized horizontally; people tend to do several things at once and value relationships over schedules
object-relations school
A psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships.
Oedipus complex
In psychoanalysis, a conflict in which a child desires the parent of the other sex and views the same-sex parent as a rival; this is the key issue in the phallic stage of development.
operant conditioning
The process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur, depending on its consequences
projective tests
Psychological tests used to infer a person's motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of the person's interpretations of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli.
A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
psychodynamic theories
Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual
social-cognitive learning theory
A theory that emphasizes how behavior is learned and maintained through the interaction between individuals and their environments, an intereaction strongly influenced by such cognitive processes as observations, expectations, perceptions, and motivating beliefs
In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards
Characteristic styles of responding to the environment that are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate
A descriptive characteristic of an individual, assumed to be stable across situations and time
unconditional positive regard
To Carl Rogers, love or support given to another person with no conditions attached.
Allport's Trait Theory (p.40)
Three levels of traits combine to give us our unique characteristics.

...Central (global) Traits

Characteristic ways of behaving.

Individual possesses 10-15 central traits.

...Secondary Traits
Changeable aspects of personality.

Covers preferences (e.g. food, music), habits, opinions.
Cattel's 16PF Factor Analysis of Traits (p.40)
Cattell used another procedure for identifying underlying traits.

~Factor Analysis

Items on personality tests are statistically grouped into clusters that seem to be measuring underlying common factors.

Identifies clusters of correlated items.

Cattel finds 16 factors that are necessary to describe the complexity of human personality.
The Big Five Fundamental Traits [p. 41]
Five fundamental factors of personality are stable over a person's lifetime.

1)Introversion versus Extroversion

Introversion = shy
Extroversion = outgoing

2)Neuroticism versus Emotional Stability

Anxiety, instability and negativity
Worriers, complainers and defeatists
"Negative emotionality" - the tendency to negative emotions

3)Agreeableness (Agreeable versus Stubborn)

Capacity for friendly relationships or the tendency to have hostile ones.

4)Conscientiousness versus undependable

Responsible vs. undependable.

5)Openness to Experience versus Conforming

Imaginative versus prefers the familiar.

~These traits remain stable over time.
~Although there is some disagreement, the evidence for the Big Five continues to mount
2 approaches to personality
The Behavioral School
The Cognitive Social-Learning School
five common characteristics of psychodynamic theories
1) Emphasis on intrapsychic dynamics.

2)An assumption that adult behavior/problems are determined by early childhood experiences.

3)A belief that psychological development occurs in fixed stages, during which predictable issues must be resolved.

4)A focus on fantasies and symbolic meanings of events as the unconscious perceives them (psychic reality) as the main motivators in personality.

5) A reliance on subjective rather than objective methods of investigation of personality.
Defense Mechanisms
Repression, projection, displacement, sublimination, reaction formation, regression, denial
Reaction Formation
When threatening unconscious anxiety is transformed into its opposite in consciousness.

Example: The fervent, zealous, antipornography crusader may be using this defense mechanism to hide the fact from himself that pornography is quite stimulating for him.
Unacceptable or threatening feelings repressed then attributed to someone else.
Emotions (especially anger) are directed at people, animals or other things that are not the real object of your feelings.
If displacement serves a useful purpose.
Psychosexual stages
oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage