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23 Cards in this Set

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Encomiendas
a. Large estates and grants of American Indian laborers
b. Provided basis for relations based on economic dominance
Bartoleme de las Casas
a. Conquistador turned priest
b. Initiated struggle for justice
c. Mistreatment and destruction of American Indians->Attempts to by clerics and royal administration to end abuse
Hernan Cortes
a. Educated man with leadership
b. Led a 600 man expedition to coast of Mexico
c. Struck inland after he heard of a great kingdom in interior
d. Defeated some Indians->Enlisted help against Aztec overlords->Reached Aztec capital (Tenochtitlan)->Emperor Moctezuma II captured and killed->Cortes and men fled capital->Aztec enemies helped them besiege Tenochtitlan
Advantages Spanish had over Indians
a. Horses, firearms, steel weapons over stone technology
b. Effective, ruthless leadership
c. Epidemic disease
d. Internal divisions and rivalries within native empires
e. Very centralized Indian empires were easy to break
Causes of Population Loss in Natives
a. Invasion of land annd socities
b. Slavery, mistreatment, disease, destruction, war
c. Conquest and weakening of societies
Increase in European Livestock
a. As Indian population decreased, European livestock decreased
b. Seemed like it was replacing natives in Mexico
c. Cattle, sheep, horses, goat
Retention of Indian Nobility
a. Spanish took advantage of it and used it to control masses
b. Certain natives told fellow natives what to do->better results
Mita
a. Forced labor in Peru
b. Communities had to send groups of laborers to work on state projects
c. Thousands of Indians to work in mines and other projects
d. Indians paid but there was abuse in the system by local officials
Economy in Spanish America
a. Agriculture and mining was basis of economy
b. Farms and ranches competed with native villages but depended on native laborers
c. Potosi-greatest silver producer
d. Mining industry stimulated farming and transportation (depended on coerced labor from natives, encomienda, mita)
e. Small woolen textile industry supplying colonial markets
f. Silver trade
Agricultural System in Spanish America
a. Spanish farm and ranches
b. Labor force was from Indians
c. Production for colonial consumption
d. Small amount of crops exported
e. Competition between Spanish haciendas and Indian communal farming
Negative Effect of American Bullion on Spanish Economy
a. Silver shipped to Spain paid for wars, debts, and purchase of manufactured goods to be sent to W. Indies
b. Less than half of silver remained in Spain
c. Rise in prices and inflation (value went down)
Treaty of Tordesillas
a. Castile and Portugal
b. Clarified spheres of influence and right of possession of 2 kingdoms by a imaginary N/S line
c. Portugal-lands E. of line
d. Castile-lands W. of the line
Catholic Church in Americas
a. Brought: missionaries, Christianity, education, universities, church building, monasteries, written stuff (printing press)
b. Had a huge commitment to government and brought it to America
Brazil's Tropical Crops
a. Cotton, tobacco, sugar cane, dyewood, and later cacao and wheat
Brazilian Slave Population
a. 150, 000 slaves (½ of the total population) at end of 17th century
Primary Difference between Spanish and Portugeuse Empires
a.Portuguese Created 1st plantation colony of Americas
i.Grew sugar with natives and African slaves
ii.Discovery of gold opened up Brazil’s interior to settlement and slavery expansion
iii.Brazil became the 1st major plantation zone organized to produce topical crop and sugar in great demand and short supply in Europe
b. The Spanish were more concerned with mineral wealth
Negative Impact of Discovery of Gold on Portugal
a. Portugal bought manufactured European goods
b. Resulted in dependancy on Europeans
c. Few industries developed
d. Most gold went to England to pay for goods and a trade imbalance
Basis of Social Hierarchy in Americas
a. Peninsulares (Spanish people born in Spain)->Mestizos (Mix between Spaniards and Indians) and Mulattos (Mix between Spaniards and African Americans)
b. Women were low so men had control
Bourbon Dynasty
a. Bourbon family rulers of Spain in 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht
b. Ended the disputes of royal succession and international war
c. Charles III-instituted financial, administrative, and military reforms to create a rational, planned government
d. French bureaucratic models, taxation reformed, and ports opened to less restricted trade by Spanish merchants
e. New viceroyalties in Rio Granada and Rio de la Plata to provide better defense and administration
f. Creoles removed from upper bureaucratic positions
g. The intendancy system provided more efficient rule by Spanish officials
h. Spain was in Anglo-French world wars & Seven Years War
i. English seized Florida and occupied HavanaàMore troops to New World, Creole militias formed, frontiers defended and expanded
j. Government took active role in economy
k. State monopolies founded and monopoly companies opened new regions for development
l. More liberal trade regulations expanded Caribbean commerce
m. Cuba became a full plantation colony
n. Buenos Aires presided over a booming economy based on beef and hides
o. More open trade damaged local industries
p. Mining revived with new discoveries from improved technology
q. Bourbon changes stimulated growing dissatisfaction among colonial elites
18th Century Reforms on Slavery in Brazil
a. No reforms
b. 18th century Brazilian slavery was the same as it had been the whole time
Mid 18th Century State of Portuguese and Spanish American Colonies
a. Growth in population
i. Interacial marriage
ii. More colonizers (immigration)
iii. More slaves came
b. More productivity and plantations developed
i. More wheat and cattle
ii. Sugar plantations
iii. More mining (silver reached height)
Tupac Amaru
a. Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru
b. Supported by many among lower social classes
c. Revolt eventuall failed because of Creole fears of social revolution
Portuguese Slave Trade Extended to America
a. Portugal did a fair amount of tradeing because they used slaves as their exported item to trade for other imported/manufactured items