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74 Cards in this Set

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-releases hormones into the bloodstream to travel throughout the body to affect specific target cells. Results may take minutes to hours but the effect lasts longer.
Endocrine system
-releases neurotransmitters which excite or inhibit nerve, muscle, and glands. Able to act in milliseconds and the effects only last for a short while.
Nervous system
What are the major glands of the endocrine system?
Pineal gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus gland, ovaries, and testes.
Hormones help regulate what?
Extracellular fluid, metabolism, biological clock, contraction of cardiac & smooth muscle, glandular secretions, some immune functions.
-secrete products into ducts which empty into the body cavities or body surface.
Exocrine glands
What are some things that the exocrine glands secrete?
Sweat, oil, mucus, and digestive glands (enzymes)
-secrete products into the bloodstream to affect target organs. Can be made of one cell or a group of cells acting as one gland.
Endocrine glands
Hormones and hormone receptors are constantly being what?
Synthesized and broken down
-occurs when excess hormones produce a decrease in number of receptors which decreases the sensitivity of the target cell to the hormone.
Down-regulation of hormone receptors
What is an example of down-regulation of a hormone receptor?
Diabetes type 2 causes an increase in insulin release.
-occurs due to deficiency of hormone and produces an increase in the number of receptors which causes the target tissue to become more sensitive to the hormone.
Up-regulation
Circulating hormones act one ____________ and travel ____________.
target cells and travel in the blood
What are hormones that do not travel in the blood?
Local hormones
-act on neighboring cells.
Paracrines
-act on the same cell that secreted them.
Autocrines
What are the 2 general classes of hormones?
Steroid hormones & non-steroid hormones
-diffuse through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane and bond to a receptor in the nucleus which turns on/off specific genes. New mRNA is formed and directs synthesis of new proteins. New protein alters the cell's activity.
Steroid hormones
-have to combine to surface receptors to start their action. The receptor acts as a first messenger. The receptor activates a G-protein in the membrane. Then a cascade of events occur to direct the cell.
Non-sterioid hormones
What are hormones regulated?
By signals from the nervous system, chemical changes in the blood or by other hormones
-occurs as a substance is produced and it negatively influences its own production which brings the body back to normal physiological limits.
Negative feedback control
-occurs as a substance is produced and it positively influences more of the hormone to be produced which tends to drive the body away from normal physiological limits.
Positive feedback control
-The anterior lobe produces and releases "stimulating" or "inhibiting" hormones. The posterior lobe hormones are made in the hypothalamus and released from the posterior lobe.
Pituitary gland
What are 2 other names for the pituitary gland?
Master gland & hypophosis
How does the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland?
With 9 different releasing and inhibiting hormones
The pituitary gland is a pea shaped, 1/2 inch gland found in the __________ of the sphenoid bone.
Cella turcica
The ________ attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
Infundibulum
The anterior lobe make up how much of the pituitary gland?
75%
The posterior lobe makes up how much of the pituitary gland?
25%
-increases growth. Produced by somatotrophs which are cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Increases the synthesis of insulin like growth factors in target cells.
Growth Hormone (GH)
What are common target cells of GH?
Liver, skeletal muscle, cartilage, and bone
-due to hyposecretion during childhood (proportional, childlike body)
Dwarfism
-hypersecretion during childhood when the growth plates are still active will cause a very tall person with normal proportions.
Giantism
-hypersecretion as an adult which causes growth of the hands, feet, facial features and thickening of the skin. The bone length cannot increase because the growth plate is closed.
Acromegly
-causes milk production in females. Breast feeding the baby causes an increase which causes an increase in milk.
Prolactin (PRL)
-controls the secretions of the thyroid gland. (Release T3 & T4)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
-controls secretions of adrenal cortex (outer layer of the adrenal gland)
Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
-controls production of egg and sperm.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
-controls secretion of estrogen and progesterone in the female and testosterone in the male.
Luetinizing Hormone (LH)
What does the posterior pituitary secrete?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & Oxytocin (OT)
-substance which decreases urine production. Also known as vasopressin. Can decrease sweating and increase blood pressure because it causes an overall increase in blood volume.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
When a person is ________ ADH is released. When a person is _________ ADH is inhibited.
Dehydrated, inhibited
-condition in which ADH is low and a person may excrete 20-30 liters per day.
Diabetes Insipidus
-causes contractions of the smooth muscles of the uterus during childbirth. The baby's head stretches the cervix and more hormone is released, and the hormone release enhances uterine muscle contraction which allows the baby and placenta to be delivered. After delivery suckling and hearing the baby's cry stimulates milk ejection.
Oxytocin (OT)
-What is necessary to make T3 and T4?
Iodine
-responsible for our metabolic rate, synthesis of protein, breakdown of fats, use of glucose for ATP production.
T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine)
-located under the larynx with one lobe on either side of the trachea. Weighs 1 oz. and has a rich blood supply.
Thyroid gland
-small gland attached to the 3rd ventricle of the brain. Made of pinealocytes and neuroglia.
Pineal gland
What does the pineal gland secrete?
Melatonin
What does melatonin do?
Responsible for setting the biological clock.
-depression that occurs during the winter months when the day length is short. It is due to an overproduction of melatonin. Therapy is exposure to several hours of artificial light each day which will decrease production of melatonin.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
The thymus gland plays an important role in the ___________ of ___________.
Maturation of T-cells
-produced by the thymus gland and promotes the proliferation and maturation of T-cells.
Thymosin
-characterized by an abnormal insulin receptor on the surface of body cells. The patient usually has enough insulin, but the cells do not respond to insulin. The patient experiences weight loss and extreme thirst and increased urine output. The condition is treated by pills. The time of onset is usually 40-60 years old.
Adult Onset Diabetes
(Type II)
Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)
-characterized by a decrease in the production of insulin in the pancreas. The person experiences high levels of glucose in the blood and urine and as extreme thirst and an increase in urine output, and excessive eating. This condition is treated with injections of insulin. The onset can be at any age.
Juvenile Onset Diabetes
(Type I)
Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
-acts on the liver to form glycogen from glucose and allows glucose to pass through cells that have insulin receptors which decreases blood glucose.
Insulin
-stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose and elevated blood pressure
Glucagon
-secrete glucagon from the alpha cells and insulin from the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.
Pancreas
The pancreas is an exocrine gland why?
It excretes digestive juices through a duct.
The pancreas is also an endocrine gland why?
It releases insulin directly into the bloodstream.
What is the first section of the small intestine?
Duodenum
The adrenal medulla secretes what?
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
-increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, increase breathing rate, and decrease activity in the digestive system.
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
-What is the center of the adrenal glands?
Adrenal medulla
What is the outer part of the adrenal glands?
Adrenal cortex
Where are the adrenal glands located?
At the top of each kidney
-raises blood calcium levels. This increases the activity of osteoclasts and increases reabsorption of calcium by kidney. Promotes formation of calcitriol (vitamin D3) by kindey which increases absorption of calcium and magnesium by the intestinal tract.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
What does a tumor of the parathyroid do?
Increases the PTH and causes bone reabsorption leading to bone fractures and high blood calcium levels.
-4 pea sized glands found on back of the thyroid gland.
Parathyroid
-deficiency of thyroid hormones due to iodine deficiency.
Simple Goiter
-myxedema, low metabolic rate, sluggishness, puffy face.
Hypothyroidism
-cretinism (mental retardation)
Hypothyroidism (infant)
-high metabolic rate, sensitivity to light, restlessness, hyperactivity, weight loss, protruding eyes.
Hyperthyroidism
-autoantibodies bind TSH receptors and overstimulate the gland
Graves disease
-responsible for building of bone and stops reabsorption of bone by stimulating osteoblasts.
Calcitonin