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43 Cards in this Set

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What is an example of norms
Many of our daily behaviors follow the social norms present in our culture. Sometimes it is easier to understand norms by thinking about what would happen if they were broken. Think, for instance what would happen if you broke the social norm dictating that you may not go shopping wearing only your underwear.
Definition: Are learned, socially based rules that dictate correct and incorrect behavior for various situations. Norms very with the culture, subculture, and situation.
What are descriptive norms?
They indicate how most other people actually behave in a given situation. They tell a person what actions are common in the situation and thereby implicitly give the person permission to act in the same way.

ex. The fact that most people do not cross a street until the green light or walk sign appears.
What are Injunctive norms?
give more specific information about the actions that others find acceptable and those that they find unacceptable.
ex. A sign that says " Do not cross on red" or the person next to you saying the same thing is an injuctive norm. Subtle pressure exists to behave in accordance with these norms.
What is an example of Deindividuation?
ex. Molly is usually a very queit indiviual. However when in the crowd at a football game, she jioned other in jeering and booing the officials.
Occurs when people in a group temporarily lose their indiviuality and behave in ways that they would not otherwise.
What do people go through when they experience deindividuation?
It apears to cause two factors. The first is the belief that one cannot be held personally accountable for one's actions. The second is a shifting of attention away from internal thought and standards and toward the external enviroment.

It often results in antisocial acts, and the emotional arousal it generates makes such behvior difficult to stop.
What is an example of social facilitation?
Jon doesn't run as fast by himself as he does when in a race.
Occurs when the presence of other people improves performane. Usually, the presense of others increases arousal because it indicates to performers that they will be evaluated.
What is an example of social impairment?
Tony has practiced the song "Mad Man" on his bongo drums only a few times and is now playing it for his instructor. He is making even more mistakes than he did when he practiced by himself.
Occurs when the presence of other people hinders prformance by increasing arousal. Usually, new, complex, or difficult tasks are most vulnerable to social impairment.
What is an example of social loafing?
Helmut is a bright but lazy individual. In work groups at the office , he goes to all the meetings on his projects but exerts very little effort, knowing that nobody will really be able to measure his personal performance in the group.
Occurs when a individual working in a group exerts less effort than when working alone because the group "hides" his or her individual performance.
What is social striving?
defined as a geater individual effort when working in a group
What is an example of conformity?
Jill wears a suit to the office because all her co-workers wear suits.
Occurs when people change their behaviors or beliefs as a result of real or imagined unspoken group pressure.
what is an example of compliance?
Erica, Brittany, and Noel are siters. There mother tells them that if they want to go swimming, they must all clean their rooms. Erica and Noel hurry to straighten their rooms, but Brittany at first refuses to touch the mess in her bedroom. After Erica and Noel repeatedly ask Brittany to help, Brittany finally complies and cleans her room.
occurs when people adjust their behavior because of the directly expressed wishes of an indiviual or group.
What is an Example of Obediance.
Noel's mother tells her that she must clean her romm, and Noel obeys.
Occurs when people comply with a demand, rather than a request, because they think they must or should do so.
What is Asch's display of public conformity?
gIVING AN ANSWER THEY DID NOT BELIEVE siply because it was the socially desirable thing to do.
What is Asch's display of Private acceptance?
Partcipant's used other people's responces as legitimate evidence abotu reality, were convinced that their own perceptions were wrong, and actually changed their minds.
What is the foot-in-the- door technique?
Works by getting a person to agree to a small request and then gradually presenting larger ones.
What is the face-in-the-door procedure?
This strategy begins witha request for a favor that is likely to be denied. The person making the request then concedes that asking for the initial favor was excessive and substitues a lesser alternative.
What is the low-ball-approach?
The first step in this strategy is to obtain a person's oral commitment to do something, such as to perchase a car at a certain price. Once this commitment is made, the cost of fulfilling it is increase, often because of an error in computing the cars price.
What is Milgrams obedience study?
the behavior change comes in response to a demand from an authority figure.

Milgram did the shock test to examine the effects of punishement on learning.
Factors affecting obediance?
Milgram had not expected so many people to deliver such apparently intense shocks. Was there something about this procedure that produced this high level of obediance? To fin out Milgram and other researchers varied the original procedure in numerous ways. The oeverall level of obediance to an authority figure was usually quite high, but the degree of obediance was affected by several fators.
In Milgrams study what is the expert social power?
the ability to influence people because they assume the person in power is a knowlegdeable and responsible expert.
In Milgrams study what is the Legitimate Social Power.
The ability to influence people because they assume the person in power has the right or legitimate authority to tell them what to do.
What is an example of aggression?
Ned is playing in the sandbox at the playground when other children begin to insult him. He retailiates by throwing sand in their faces with the express puropse of hurting them.
What did Frued say about Thanatos and the theory of human aggression?
Thanatos is the death instinct.
Freud proposedthat agression is an instinctive biological urge that gradually build up in everyone and must be released. Somtimes release takes the form of physical and verbal abuse against others, the agression impulse is turned inward and leads to suicide and other self damaging acts.
What do the evolutionary Psychologist believe about Aggression?
they believe that human social behavior is related to our evolutionary heritage. Aggression is thought to have helped pre-historic people compete for mates, thus ensuring survival of their genes in the next generation.
What is defense aggression?
It includes heightened aggressiveness to stimuli that are not usually threatening or decrease in the responses that normally inhibit agression.
What is an example of the frustation aggression hypothesis?
After attempting nine slam dunks of the basketball and missing them all, Kimberly is in a bad mood. She notices a bully shoving her brother around the park. Although not usually violent, she reacts by punching the bully in the stomach.

definition: Suggests that stress produces a readiness to act aggressively but that aggression will occur only if there are cues in the enviroment that are associated with an aggressive respnce. It also proposes that direct cause of most aggression in negative affect.
What is an example of helping behavior?
Is any act that is intended to benefit another person.

ex. Sophie knows that one of her best friends is working extremely hard and has barely enough time to clean, cook, and do laundry. Sophie, an excellent cook, prepares three weeks worth of dinners for her friend.
What is an example of Altruism?
Is a desire to help another person rather than benefit oneself.

ex. People who sacrifice their own lives in order to save others are acting altruitically.
What is the bystander effect intervention?
Usually, as a number of people who witness an emergency increases, the liklihood that one of them will help decreases.

One explanation for why the presence of others often reduces helping is that each person thinks someone else will help the victim.
What is diffusion of responsibility?
Each person thinks someone else will help the vitim. The degree to which the presence of other people will inhibit helping may depend on who those people are.

ex. Does the man on the sidewalk need help? The people on the side walk are probably not sure, and might assume that if he does, someone else will assist him.
What is the arousal cost reward theory?
explains that people help if they are distressed by someone's need and if the cost of not helping out weigh the cost of helping.

ex. Juan feels terrible when he see's that Mary's fallon the sidewalk has injured her and scattered her packages everywhere. He knows that he'll be late to work if he helps, but after a moment he decides that his guilt over not helping would be worse than having to explain his late arrival.
What is the empathy-altruism theory?
Proposes that helping is often a result of empathy with the person in need of help.

ex. jane knowa what it feels liek to be totally confused about a homework assignment, so he feels badly for his classmate Randy and stays after class to clarify the directions. Other students who don't feel empathy for Randy leave the two to work out the problems together.
What is an example of the commons dilemma? 1 type
consider a situation in which farmers all draw water for their crops from the same lake. Each indiviual farmer would benefit greatly from unrestricted use of the water, but if all the farmers did the same, the water would soon be gone.
People have to decide how much to take from a common resource.
What is an example of public good delimma? 2nd type
In the short run, you would benefit greatly if you did not pay taxes, but if eberyone failed to pay, no one would have police and fire protection, highwat repairs, national defese, or oher vital government services.
People must decide how much to contribute to a common resource.
What is the overall resourse delimmas?
people share a common resource, creating conflicts between the indiviual and the group and between short and long tern interest.
What is an example of the zero sum games?
At a swim meet, one personis declared the winner of ech race. The other players may plca second or third in the race, but they cannot win.
are situations in which one person must lose so that another may gain.
What is an example of group think?
The union leaders discussing the latest cintract proposal tend to ignore any suggestion that it is fair . The head of the union does not believe theyr should accept any contract that gives them a cut in pay. The small group disscussing it ie unaware that some union members are willing to make that sacrifice, therefore they keep rejecting the company's offers.
Is the deterioration over tim of a small, closely knit groups ability to evaluate realistically the available options and the decisions it makes.
What is an example of the commons dilemma? 1 type
consider a situation in which farmers all draw water for their crops from the same lake. Each indiviual farmer would benefit greatly from unrestricted use of the water, but if all the farmers did the same, the water would soon be gone.
People have to decide how much to take from a common resource.
What is an example of public good delimma? 2nd type
In the short run, you would benefit greatly if you did not pay taxes, but if eberyone failed to pay, no one would have police and fire protection, highwat repairs, national defese, or oher vital government services.
People must decide how much to contribute to a common resource.
What is the overall resourse delimmas?
people share a common resource, creating conflicts between the indiviual and the group and between short and long tern interest.
What are task oriented leaders and an example?
They are those who provide close supervision, discourage group discussion, and give many directives?

ex. Rebecca knows that to get the construction estimate out by noon, she'll need to give each worker a job. As they work on their separate contributions, she'll track their progress to ensure that each can accomplish her or his part. Rebecca doesn't think it's necessary to get the workers opinions, especially since their is not much time.
What are person oriented leaders and an example?
are those who provide loose supervision, ask for group members ideas and opinions, and demonstrates concern for subordinates feelings.

ex. Each time his group has a new project, Lorcan first asks group members to contribute ideas without censoring them. Eventually the group works together to choose the best ideas and Lorcan tries to ensure that everyone is in agreement.