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39 Cards in this Set

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capsid
the protein shell that encloses a viral genome, maybe rod shaped, polyhedral or more complete in shape
viral envelope
a membrane that cloacks the capsid that in turn encloses a virual genome
bacteriophages
a virus that infects bacteria; also calleda phage
host range
the limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize
lytic cycle
a type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by death or lysis of the host cell
virulent phage
a virus that reproduces only by a lytic cycle
virulent phage
a virus that reproduces only by a lytic cycle
lysogenic cycle
a phage replication cycle where the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host
temperate phages
phagse that are capable of using either the lytic or lysogenic cycle
prophage
a phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome
retroviruses
an RNA virus that reproduces by transcriping its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer causing viruses
reverse transcriptase
an enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
the infectious agent that causes AIDS; an RNA retrovirus
Acquired immunodefiiency syndrome (AIDS)
the name of the late states of HIV infections; defined by a specified reduction of T cells and the appearance of charateristic secondary infections
vaccines
a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen
vaccines
a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune styem to mount defenses against the pathogen
viroids
plant pathogens composed of molecules of naked circular RNA only several hundred nucleotides long
prions
an infectious form of protein that may increase in number by converting related proteins to more prions
nucleoid
a dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
transformation
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
transduction
a DNA transfer process used by phages to carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
generalized transduction
the random transfer of bacterial genes from one bacterium to another
specialized transduction
the transfer of only those genes near the prophage site on the bacterial chromosome
conjugation
in bacteria the direct transfer of DNA between 2 cells that are temp joined
F factor
fertility factor in bacteria; a DNA segment that confers the ability to form pili for conjugation and associated functions required for the transfer of DNA from donor to recipient- may exist as a plasmid or integrated into the bacterial chromosome
plasmid
a small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also foud in some eukaroytes such as yeast
episome
a genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part o fthe bacterial chromosome
F plasmid
the plasmid form of the F factor
R plasmid
a bacterial plasmid carrying genes that confer resistence to certain antibotics
R plasmid
a bacterial plasmid carrying gnees that confer resistence to certain antibotics
transposon
a transopable genetic element; a mobile segment of DNA that serves as an agent of genetic change
insertion sequence
a mutation involving the addition of 1 or more nucleotide pairs to a gene
operator
in prokaroytic DNA a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach
operon
a unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions
repressor
a protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene
regulatory gene
a gene that cods for a protein such as a repressor that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
corepressor
a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon on
inducer
a specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon
cycli AMP (cAMP)
cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracullular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells (for example in vertebrate endocrine cells) alos regulator of some bacterial operons