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73 Cards in this Set

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What is an orphan drug?
a less profitable, government funded drug that is used to treat rare diseases.
Drug Names:
Chemical
Generic
Official
Trade
Chemical Drug Name
Abbreviated chemicla make up of the drug. Chemical derscription of the composition.
Generic Drug Name
Common name; abbreviated form of the chemicla name.
Official Drug Name
Has the initials USP after the name
Trade Drug Name
Brand name
Drugs come from certain souces, what are they?
Plant
Animal/Human
Mineral
Microorganisms
Lab/Man Made
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906
Protection from mislabled medicines and false claims
Restriction on abusive drugs
Sherley Amendment
1912
Protection from false claims
Harrison Narcotic Act
1914
Control of narcotics
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
1938
ingredients had to be listed and product tested
Durham-Humphrey Amendement
1952
Changed 1938 Food, Drug,and Cosmetic Act
Legend must bear warnings
Kefauver-Harris Amendment
1962
Drug had to be proven of its claims
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
1970
Established the Schedule I- IV
Schedule I Drug
high abuse potential with no accepted medical purpose
Schedule II Drugs
High abuse potential but, has some accepted medical purposes
Schedule III Drugs
Less potential of abuse and moderate to low dependence
Schedule IV Drugs
Lowest abuse potential
Category A Drugs
No risk during pregnancy
Category B Drugs
No Risk but no test provided
Category C Drugs
Some risk
Category D
Some Risk and some test have been provided
Category X
Fetal Risk Proven; can not be taken
Agonist
a drug that interacts with a receptor to stimulate a response
Antaonist
attaches to a receptor but does not stimulate a response
Pharmaceutics
science of dispensing drugs
Dissolution
refers to the rate at which a solid drug goes into solution after ingestion
3 phases of drug activity
Pharamceutical Phase
Pharmacokinetic Phase
Pharmacodynamic Phase
Pharmaceutical Phase
dispensing and dissolution of drugs
Phramacokinetic Phase consists of
absorption
distrubtion
biotransformation
excretion
Absorption
movement of drug from entry site to the general circulation
Absorption is affected by
The absorption surface of the surface, bloodflow to the site, solubility of the drug, ph of the drug's environment, drug concentration, form of the drug dosage
Distribution
drug traveling thru the blood stream or general circulation to various tissues and or target organ
Distribution is affected by
Permeability of capillaries to drug molecules
Biotransformation
The chemicla is coverted to a metabolite; it's the 1st processs of elimination; liver is the primary organ (or detox center)
Excretion
elimination of the drug
Pharmacodynamic
study of how grugs act within living organisms
Pharmacodynamic Phase
drug receptor interaction, drug response assessment, biological half life
Routes of Drug Administration
Enteral, Parenteral, Pulmonary, Topical
Enteral Routes
Orally, Sublingual, buccal, rectally, nasogastric tube
Parenteral Routes
Subcutaneous, Intramuscular, Intravenous, Intradermal, Intraosseous, Endotracheal
Drug Reserviors
drug accumulation
Two processes that cause drug reserviors
plasma protein binding and tissue binding
Factors that influence a drug's action
age, body mass, gender, environment, time of administration, pathological state (illness/injury), gentic, psyhchological factors
Biological 1/2 Life
the time it takes to metabolize/eliminate 50% of the drug
Therapeutic Index
relative saftey of the drug. The ration between the lethal dose and the effective dose.
Drug Profile Contains
Drug Names, Classification, MOI, Indications, Pharamcokinetics, Side effects, Dosages, Route, Contraindications, Special Considerations, Storage requirements.
Drug Administration Problems with the elderly could be caused by
Espensive, Noncompliance, Forget Instructions, Errors
Competitive Antagonist
Agent with an affinity for the same receptor site as agonist
Noncompetitive Antagonist
an agent that combines with different parts of the receptor mechanism and inactivates the receptor so that the agonist can not be effective
Four Types of nerve fibers are found in most nerves
Visceral afferent
Visceral efferent
Somatic afferent
Somatic efferent
Visceral afferent
Sensory fibers, which convey impulses from the internal organs to the CNS
Visceral efferent
Motor fibers, which convey impulses from the CNS to the internal organ, glandsm and the smooth and cardiac muscles
Somatic afferent
Sensory fibers, which convey impulses from the head, body wall, and extremeties to the CNS
Somatic efferent
Motor fibers, which convey impulses from the CNS to the striated muscles
Sympathetic Nervous System is also known as
Adrenergic
Parasympathetic System also known as
Cholinergic
The parasympathetic system has what type of receptors
nicotinic and muscarinic
Nicotinic receptors are stimulated by and are found where
nicotine and are found neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscles
Muscarinic receptors are stimulated by and are found where
mushroom poison, muscarine and are found at the neruomuscular junction of cardiac smooth muscle
Drugs that affect the Autonomic Nervous system
Cholinergic
Cholinergic blocking
Adrenergic
Adrenergic blocking
Chronotropic Drugs
Affect heart rate
Dromotropic Drugs
Affect conduction velocity
Inotropic Drugs
strengthen or increase the force of cardiac contraction
Classifications of antidysrhtymics
Class I - IV
Class I Antidysrhtymics
Sodium channel blockers, slow conduction
Class II Antidysrhtymics
Beta blocking agents, reduce adrenergic stimulation of the heart
Class III Antidysrhtymics
Produce potassium channel blockade; this increase contractility
Class IV Antidysrhtymics
Calium channel blockers work by blocking the inflow of calcium through the cell membrane of the cardiac and smooth muscle cells.
Hemostatic Agents
hasten clot formation
Serotonin affects vessels by which force
vasoconstriction
Drugs that affect the adrenal Cortex are
steriods
3 types of steriods
gluccorticoids
mineralocorticoids
sex hormones