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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Cricoid Cartilage?
The narrowest part of the child's upper airway.
Soft spots on the top of an infants head. Fotanelles are spaces between the bones of the infant's cranium that are covered by a tough membrane.
Recall the characteristics of the various pediatric development stages and how the EMT-I should approach the patient at each stage.
The EMT is the authority of the scene. Parents are either allies or problems. What is the child's age and approx. weight. What is the child's level of understanding, Child support around? Anyone know the patients medical history, try to aways talk to the child. Special needs that need to be addressed.
Recognize the signs and symptoms of increased respiratory efforts in the infant or child?
First sign is tachypnea
increased repiratory rate/effor
diminished breath sounds
decreased level of responsiveness or parents or pain.
poor skeletal muscle tone

nasal flaring
inspiratory retractions
Head bobbing
Prolonged expiration
Recognize the normal vital sign values for the various pediatric age group?
Infant - 30 to 60 Breaths per min
100-160 Heart rate, less than 60 Systolic BP

Toddler 24-40 Breath per min, 90-150 HR and less than 70

Preschooler 22-34 RR, 80-140 HR, less than 75.

School-aged child - 18-30 RR, 70-120 HR, less than 80.

Adolescent 12-16RR, 60-100 HR
less than 90
Broselow tape
It is a referene material kept in the ambulance. A resuscitation tape developed by Broselow and colleagues is an example of a tool that can be used.
Indentify the type of endotracheal tube used in children less than 8 years old.
Not a big deal, because we can't use them.
List at least three techniques for bag-mask ventilation in the infant or child.
12-20 BPM
at least 15 L High O2
at least 450 cc of air
With two hands, one on mask and holding chin position
Maintain the head in a neutral, sniffing position without hyperextension is adequate for infants and toddlers.

Other basic /standard airway ventalation applies
infraosseous infusion
This is accomplished by by inserting a needle into the long bone of the leg. Infusion of IV fluids into the marrow cavity of the bone can circulate to the heart in 20 seconds. or less. It should be held as a last resort.
Recognize two characteristics of the follwoing; Croup, epiglottitis, asthma and bronchiolitis
Croup - Viral, late fall/early winter, 3 months to 3 years, SLOW onset, lie down or sit up, barking cough like a seal, NO Drooling, Temperature greater than 104.

Epiglottitis - Bacterial, No seasonal preference, 3 to 7, Rapid onset, Sitting in tripod position, No Barking cough, Pain causes drooling, temperture greater than 104

Asthma - Any age, winter/spring, allergy, exercise and infection, History of asthma in family, Drugs reverse bronchospasm.

Bronchiolitis - 6-18 months, any time, viral, no history of asthma, Drugs not always effective.
aslo known as laryngotracheobronchitis is a respiratory illness that occurs in children between 3 months and 3 years old. Viral infection slow onset. Most commonly , the child will be harse with respiratory stridor and a characteristic Bark in the form of a cough.
is an inflammation of the epiglottis. Kids 3-7. It is caused by bacteria and progresses rapidly. Kid will be quiet still, look ill, and in sitting tripod position, and drooling. Watch Airway! Priority! No barking cough.
reactive airway disease - most common chronic illiness. Same signs as adults.
inflection of the lower respiratory tract. (viral) 6 to 18 months. Mild fever, cough, running nose. which progresses to respiratory distress. Edema and increased mucus secretion obstruct the bronchioles.
Infection of the lower airway and lung. Caused by bacteria or virus. Fever, poor eating habits, irritability. Grunting respirations, secondary to air trapping and expiratory obstruciton should suggest it.
Different than adults, may compensate up to 20 percent before showing signs. Look at skin color and feeling pulse
Identify the signs and symptoms of the infant or child with dehydration?
Three stages: mild, moderate, severe
Mild nothing really out of the ordinary. Thirsty

Moderate:HR,RR increased, irritable, fontelled depressed, very dry, but some tears. Intense thirst

Severe- HR greater than 130. tachypneic, BP less than 80, lethargic, Cap refill long, no tears cool clammy, intense thirst.

Wets/bowel movements. Last bottle in the last 24 hours, how long have them been sick. IV bolus of 20 ml repeat very 5 minutes.
Describe the treatment of an infant or child in status epilepticus?
is a continuous seizure lasting more than 30 minutes or a series of seizures in which the patient does not regain responsivement. Priority.
Inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. to Confirm must have spinal tap.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis
Fever, dehydration, disorientation or lethargy, bulging fontanelle, irritability(no touching) loss of appetite, poor feeding, vomiting, seizures, respiratory distress, cyanosis, rash
Define drowning, submersion and water rescue?
Water resue - the child may have had some distress in the water but is alert.

Submersion - occurs when the child has swimming-related distres that requires support in teh field and transport to the hospital.

Drowning - occurs when the child dies after a submersion incident.
Identify common poisons ingested by children?
Household products, (cleaning, lawn, cosmetics)
Toxic plants
Contaminated foods (potato salad)

Older kids -
Alcohol, Organic solvents(gas, canned air)
List causes of pediatric trauma in order of the most common to the least common?
Blunt trama, penetrating injuries, fatal mechanisms of injury.
List the most important intervention for a child with head trauma.
Manage the airway and provide ventilation and supplementary oxygenation. Ventilation helap sto adequately oxygenate the child.
Describe the process for pediatric immobilation
Same as an adult
Scene safe, M of I
Hold head
initial assessment
C-spine or adjuct towel

Short backboards, use child safety seat if needed, remove helmets.
List two signs of blunt trama to the abdomen in the pediatric patient.
Bruising from lap belt
Unstable pelvis, abdominal distension, rigidity, or tenderness or signs of unexplained levels of shock. Crying can hide other problems.
Describe the treatment for a child with hypothermia?
Hypothermia is below 95. Move to warmer tempertures, remove wet clothing, cover head, warm liquids, high flow O2, CPR no stimulation, get to hospital, warm packs are fine, but away from skin.
Child maltreatment
Child abuse - includes intentional physical abuse or neglect, emotional abuse or neglect and sexual abuse of children.
List five indicators of child abuse or maltreatment?
obvious fractures under 2
bruises or burns in various stages
injuries around trunk of body
intracranial pressure in infants
lack of cleaniness
wrong clothes for the season
withdraws from parent
inappropriate to the situation

Position of child in family
Illegitimate or unwanted
Additional physical needs
Difficult pregnancy, labor or delivery.
recognize examples of cognitive and physical disabilities.
Cognitive disabilities - learning disability, mental retardation, or some form of develpmental delay.

Physical disabilities type of limitation of mobility and are caused by birth anomalies, cerebral palsy, spina bifida,and spinal injuries.
Describe treatment of an obstructed tracheostomy in an infant or child.
Should be suctions if occluded. Only 4 to 5 seconds, or take out the tube and clean stoma. and replace tube,(can't do) or cover stoma and bag/value over mouth and nose.
Identify family issues encountered when working with children who have special health care needs.
Families like it or not are experts. You are to be in control, but respect family. Let them assist, remember siblings. It can be stressful to them, another trip to the hospital.