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97 Cards in this Set

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1700s Europe was called
the "Age of Enlightenment," because they believed themselves the first to have discovered "light" of logical thinking revealed by science
Enlightenment philosophers
believed they could apply the scientific method and use reason to logically explain human nature
rationalism
the belief that truth can be arrived at solely by reason, or rational, logical thinking
Age of Enlightenment also called
"Age of Reason"
natural law governed
the universe and all of its creatures
Enlightenment thinkers believe that God
created the world and made rules for all living things
In order to live in harmony
people had to use reason to discover natural law
The thinkers of the Enlightenment became convinced
that progress would always take place
Thinkers of the Enlightenment were called
philosophes
Philosophe is French for
philosopher
Philosophes were not only philosophers, but also
critics of society
Published ideas in books, plays, pamphlets, newspapers, and
encyclopedias
Encyclopedias took advantage of the (mechanical device) that religious reformers once used very effictively
printing press
The educated all throughout Europe spoke and wrote using
French
Encyclopedia was a
handbook or reference book on the Enlightenment, which became the most famous publication of this period
The philosophe - created the encyclopedia.
Denis Diderot
_ was his assistant.
Jean d'Alembert
Together, they worked - hours a day.
14 hours
Between 1751 and 1780, they published - volumes.
35 volumes
T or F? French authorities never imprisoned any philosophes.
F. Diderot and others were imprisoned.
Places where philosophes chilled with hostesses to talk
salons
_ was a famous hostess of the philosophes.
Marie-Therese Geoffrin
Philosophes met with one another to discuss the various political and social changes they strived for.
yeah...
_ published The Spirit of the Laws, in which he describes what he considers to be a perfect government, in 1748.
Baron de Montesquieu
Montesquieu concluded that - had the best form of goverment.
England
It was a good government because power was divided equally among the 3 branches, which were
the executive, the legislative, and the judicial
The branches participated in
checks and balances
The executive and legislative branches were largely combined in
the House of Commons
His concepts of checks and balances influenced the - in the US.
framers of the constitution in 1787
Voltaire is AKA
Francois-Marie Arouet
He served - terms in the prison known as -.
2;the Bastille
After his time at the Bastille, he fled to -.
England
He commented on the - and - in - in 1734.
the British political system and English customs;Letters on England
Letters on England helped popularize -.
English ideas in France
Voltaire attacked intolerance and injusticed by -.
rallying public opinion and rousing people to oppose barbaric tortures and religious intolerance
Voltaire's famous quote was
"I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
- wrote the essay for - in 1749, winning him the contest.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau;the Academy of Dijon
Civilization has -, according to Rousseau.
corrupt people
History repeats itself in cycles of -, with - as examples.
decay;Egypt, Greece, Rome, and Byzantium
Published in 1762, Rousseau's most famous book was -.
The Social Contract
People are born good, but - corrupt them.
environment, education, and laws
Just laws and wise government must be based upon -.
popular sovereignty
Popular sovereignty is -.
created by and subject to the will of the people
Rousseau distrusted - because it brought on corruption and misery, not progress.
reason
Rousseau preferred a kind of -, free of complicated institutions.
pastoral state
People who had tired of rationalism accepted Rousseau's philosophy of the -.
"natural man"
_ is a system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment.
enlightened despotism
In countries with absolute monarchs and strong censorship, - and - fought the ideas of the philosophes.
rulers and monarchs
They prohibited the publishing of books or seriously censored them, removing any materials against the church or public officials.
yep...
To avoid trouble, philosophes wrote - instead of "Parisians."
"Persians"
Montesquieu used this substitution in his -.
Persian Letters
Voltaire moved near -.
Geneva, Switzerland
The French Revolution began in 1789. The period befors 1789 is known as -.
the "Old Regime"
_ consisted of the Roman Catholic Church and totaled less than - of the population.
The First Estate;1%
The church retained many of the privileges it had held since -.
the Middle Ages
Only - could try priests and bishops.
church courts
The clergy did not have to pay taxes, and occassionally made a - to the king.
"free gift" of money
The church owned - of all the land in France.
one-tenth
The -, consisting of -, -, and - owned most of the church's wealth.
higher clergy;archbishops, bishops, and abbots
Because of the church's wealth, much of the clergy became -.
lazy, worldly, and neglectful of their spiritual duties
The lower clergy, made up of -, performed most of the work and received a very low pay.
parish priests
The lower clergy gave religious guidance and -.
fed the poor, provided education
The Second Estate, made of -, made up less than -% of the country
nobility;2%
The Second Estate had many rights, such as…
the right to wear a sword, the right of the eldest son to inherit titles and lands, and the right to function as "lord of the manor"
The right of the eldest son to inherit titles and lands is AKA…
primogeniture
Higher positions in the army and government were held by -.
nobles
The Third Estate consisted of - and made up about -% of the population.
average people of France;97%
The Third Estate was divided into - groups, with the - at the top.
3;bourgeoisie
People who were part of the bourgeoisie were…
the city-dwelling middle class (merchants, manufacturers, and professionals such as doctors and lawyers)
Below the bourgeoisie were -.
laborers and artisans of the cities
At the bottom of the Third Estate were the -.
peasants
The peasants paid rent for the land they worked, the heaviest taxes, and also - of their income, called the -.
one-tenth;tithe
Some factors in the growing discontent in France were -.
increased family size (more children, need mo' food), changing economic conditions (raising taxes on the poor peasants, selling things that they had once given away, peasants owed old feudal dues)
An example of selling things that were once free for peasants?
selling firewood when they used to be allowed to pick up twigs and brances in the woods for fuel
Peasants broke out into riots in the streets against…
higher taxes, especially on food.
The poor economic situation reinforced the first two estates to protect their most valued privilege, -.
freedom from taxation
The bourgeoisie wanted - of government.
their sons to hold high positions in the army and the church, less taxes (while the first two estates had none), more influence in government, mercantilist regulations (like on trade)
The nobles and upper clergy disliked the increasing power of French kings since the reign of -. It limited their influence. Yep.
Henry IV
_ and - were their natural rights, and they discussed it much.
"liberty" and "equality"
For peasants, liberty and equality meant -. For the bourgeoisie, it meant -. For the nobility, -.
the right to eat and get reward for their work;the freedom to trade without restriction and the right to move up in society;the freedom to enjoy their ancient privileges and to limit the authority of the king
The right to move up in society on merit alone is known as -.
equality of opportunity
The wars of - left France in a huge debt.
Louis XIV
In 1715, - began his reign, which resulted in - years of French peace. His reign lasted - years.
Louis XV;25;59 (1715-1774)
Louis XV was also called -.
"Louis the Well-Beloved"
When taxes could not produce enough money to meet expenses, Louis XV borrowed money from -.
bankers
Warned that his economic actions endangered France, Louis XV remarked, "-."
"It will survive for my time. After me, the deluge."
_ succeeded Louis XV and his wife was -, who was the daughter of -.
Louis XVI;Marie Antoinette;Austrian empress Maria Theresa
Louis XVI was - years old when he became king.
19 years old
What caused France's economy to go down the drain drastically?
assisting the US forces during the American revolution
Louis XVI eventually tried to tax the -, and called a meeting of the - at - in 1789.
first two estates;Estates-General;Versailles
Peasants spent more than -% of their income on bread.
60 percent
A visionary, -, published a pamphlet called -.
The Abbe Sieyes;What Is The Third Estate?
The Estates-General had not met for - years.
175 years
The Estates-General allowed the - to out vote the -.
First two estates;third estate
Many representatives of the Third Estate were young lawyers acquainted with the ideas of - and -.
Montesquieu;Voltaire
A few nobles, such as -, represented the Third Estate.
Count de Mirabeau
The Third Estate had as many representatives as the First and Second combined.
mhmm