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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-genes determine phenotype through the action of enzymes
-inherited diseases caused by inability to make cetain enzymes
organism that could not grow pnm the minimal medium that duffieced for wild-type mold
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
the function of agene is to contrtol production of a specific polypepetide
polypetide that is usually single stranded.
-ribose instead of deoxyribose
-uracil replaces thymine
the transfer of information from DNA to meessenger RNA(mRNA)
transfers infromation from mRNA to a polpepetide, changing from the language of nucleotides to that of amino acids
how does transcription occur in prokaryotes?
- prokaryotes don't have a nucleus so transcription and translation occur simultaneously
how does transcription occur in eukaryotes?
mRNA must exit the nucleus before translation can occur
RNA processing
the modification of the primary transcript within the nucleus
- only occurs in eukaryotes
primary transcript
triplet code
sequence of three nucleotides that provide 64 possible sequences of nucleotides
RNA polymerase
separate the two stands of DNA and links RNA nucleotides that base-pair along the template strand to the 3' end of the growin RNA polymer
transcription unit
the sequence of DNA that is transcribed into one RNA molecule
polymerase II
type of RNA polymerase that synthesizes mRNA
transcription factors
proteiins that first bind to the promoter and aid RNA polmerase II in locating binding to this region
sequence that ends transcription
long segments of nocoding base sequences that occur within the boundaries of eurkaryotoic gene
remaining codon regions which are expressed in protein synthesis
RMA splicing
process of removing introns and adding exons before the pre-mRNA leaves the nucleus
snips and intorns out of the RNA treanscript and connect the adjoining exons
RNA molecules that act as enzymes