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30 Cards in this Set

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what are bacteria considered and what does it mean?
prokaryotes-before true nucleus
what does bacteria lack?
no membrane around nucleus and no membrane-enclosed organelles
what are the two different domains of prokaryotes?
Bacteria and Archaea
what is the difference between these two domains?
is the nucleic acids, some Archaea have rRNA that matches eukaryotic ones
what are the parts of a bacteria?
cell wall, pilli, flagella, cell envelope, and cytoplasm
what do the pilli do?
stick to surfaces like your throat
what does the cell envelope do?
make a capsule that is antiphaygocytic (white blood cells cannot eat this)
how do bacteria reproduce?
by fission or conjugation
what is fission?
where DNA chromosome replicates
what is generation time and how much is it?
time it takes for bacteria to replicate, it is exponential(1->2 2->4, 4->8)
what is Cyanobacteria?
photosynthetic bacteria
cyanobacteria is common where?
lakes, ponds, tropical oceans, and anywhere where its calm and warm
what happens if the water becomes polluted?
the cyanobacteria will bloom
how does the bloom affect animals in the water
depletes their oxygen
before we knew what caused a disease people blamed disorders on what?
the wrath of good or to toxins (bad air)
who was Koch?
a scientist who proved that one specific agent caused a specific disease such as a "pathogen"
what are some examples of disease causing bacteria?
staphlococcus aureus, food intoxication, and anthrax
where is staphlococcus found in humans?
in the nasal cavity
food intoxication is what?
the most common type of food poisoning in the U.S. due to staphlococcus
how is food intoxication transmitted?
by eating certain foods that have been contaminated by handling and then left unrefrigerated
how can you prevent food intoxication?
keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold
what does anthrax look like?
large rods hooked like sausage
how was anthrax transmitted?
livestock infected while grazing on grass contaminated with spores
how did the eukaryotic cell originate?
probably as a community of prokaryotes
what are two processes involved?
membrane infolding and endosymbiosis
what is membrane infolding?
inward folds of plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell encircled organelles
what did endosymbiosis do?
generated the first mitochondria and chloroplasts
symbiosis is what?
is a close association between organisms of two or more species
mitochondria and chloroplast are what?
small prokaryotes that established themselves inside larger prokaryotes
what is unique about mitochondria and chloroplast?
these two organelles have their own DNA and can replicate on their own