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729 Cards in this Set

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what is the endocrine system?
the secound great control system that interacts with the nervous system to coordinate and integrate the activity of body cells
NAME
is the secound greatest control system that interacts w the nervous system to coordinate and integrate the activtiy of body cells
endocrine system
T or F
the means and control of the endocrine system do not very different from those of the nervous system
false
What are some of the differ btwn the nervous and endocrine system?
(1)the nervous system regulates the actvity of muscles and glands via electrochemical impulses delivered by neurons and those organ respond w/in milllisecounds (2)the endocrine system infuleucnes metabolic activity by means of hormones and responses typically occur after a lag period of secounds or even days, but once intiated these responses tend to be more prolonged than those induced by the nervous system
NAME
regulates the activity of muscles and glands via electrochemical impulses delivered by neurons and those organs respond w/in millisecounds
nervous system
NAME
this system infleucnes metabolic activity by means of hormones and responses to hormones typically occur after a lag period of secounds or even days. Furthermore, those responses tend to be more prolonged than those induced by the nervous system
endocrine system
what are hormones?
are chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body
NAME
are chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body
hormones
What are (2) major processes controled and integrated by hormones?
(1)reproduction (2)growth
What is endocrinology?
is the scientific study of hormones and the endocrine system
NAME
is the scientific study of homrones and the endocrine system
endocrinology
What are two kinds of glands?
(1)endocrine (2)exocrine
What are exocrine glands?
produce nonhormonal substnaces such as sweat and salvia and have ducts through which substances are routed to a membrane surface
NAME
produce nonhormonal substances such as sweat and salvia and have ducts through which substances are routed to a membrane surface
exocrine glands
What are endocrine glands?
are ductless glands that produce hormones
NAME
are ductless glands that produce hormones
endocrine glands
Endocrine glands are typically have a rich (1)receives thier hormones
vascular and lymphatic drainage
NAME
are typically vascular and lymphatic drainage
endocrine glands
Most of the hormones-producing cells in endocrine glands are arranged in (1)
cords and branching networks
NAME
most of the hormone producing cells in the (2) are arranged in cord and branching networks
endocrine glands
What are the endocrine glands? (9)
(1)parathroid (2)pituitary (3)thyroid (4)adrenal (5)pineal (6)thymus glands (7)pancreas (8)gonads (9)hypothalamus
NAME
includes the pancreas, and gonads,hypothalamus, parathroid, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pineal, and thymus glands
endocrine glands
What are the (3) major endocrine glands?
(1)pancreas (2)gonads (3)hypothalamus
NAME
is considered a neuroendocrine organ
hypothalamus
The hypothalmus is considered a (1)
neuroendocrine organ
T or F
local hormones are considered part of the endocrine system
false
Why are local hormones not considered part of the endocrine system?
bc hormones are long distance chemical singals
What are two kinds of local hormones?
(1)autocrines (2)paracrines
What are autocrines?
are chemicals that exert thier effects on the same cells that secrete them
NAME
are chemicals that exert thier effects on the same cells that secrete them
autocrines
NAME
include autocrines, and paracrines
local hormones
NAME
a example of this homrones is when certain prostaglandins released by smooth muscle cells cause the smooth muscle cells to contract
autocrines
What are paracrines?
act locally but affect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals
NAME
act locally but affect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals
paracrines
What is the chemical def of a hormones?
are chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function ofother cells in the body
NAME
are chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body
hormones
How can hormones be classified chemically? (3)
(1)amino acids (2)steriods (3)eicosanoids
Most hormones are (1) based
amino acid
Steriods are synthesized from (1)
cholestral
NAME
are synthesized from cholestral
steriods
what are the only two types of steriods produced by the endocrine system?
(1)gonadal (2)adrenocortical
NAME
include gonadal and adrenocortical
steriod hormones
what are some types of eicosanoids? (2)
(1)leukotrienes (2)prostaglandins
NAME
this types of homrones include leukotrienes, and prostaglandins
eicosanoids
What are eicosanoids?
are local hormones that are biologically active lipids released by nearly all cell membranes
NAME
are local hormones that are biologically active lipids released by nearly all cell membranes
eicosanoids
What are leukotrienes?
are signaling chemicals taht mediate inflammation and some allergic reactions
NAME
are signaling chemicals that mediate inflammation and some allergic reactions
leukotrienes
What are prostaglandins?
have multiple targets and effects ranging from raising blood pressure and increasing the expulsive uterine contractions of birth to enhancing blood clotting, pain, and inflammation
NAME
have multiple targets and effects ranging from raising blood pressure and increasing the expulsive uterine contractions of birth to enhancing blood clotting, pain, and inflammation
prostaglandins
T or F
eicosanoids fit the true role of circulating hormones
False
Do eicosanoids fit the true role of circulating homrones?
no
A given hormone influences the activity of only certain tissue cells called (1)
target cells
Hormones bring about thier characteristic effects on target cells by (1)
either decrease or increase the rates of normal cellular processes
How do hormones bring about thier characteristic effects on target cells ?
by either decreasing or increasing the rates of normal cellular processes
How does a hormonal stimulus typically produce one or more following changes? (5)
(1)alters plasma membrane premeatbility or membrane potential or both by opening or closing ion channels (2)stimulates synthesis of protiens or regulatory molecules such as enzymes w/in the cell (3)activates or deactivates enzymes (4)induces secretory activity (5)stimulates mitosis
What are two main mechanisms that account for how a hormone communicates w its target cell?
(1)how a hormone receptor binding is harnessed to the intracellular machinary needed for hormone actin (2)one or more secound messengers
Why do amino based hormones use secound messengers?
bc proteins and peptides cannot penetrate the plasma membrane
How do amino acids based hormones exert thier signaling effect when protiens and polypeptides cannot cross the plasma membrane?
2nd messengers
What is a secound messenger?
exert a hormones singal when a hormone binds to the receptors on the plasma membrane
Give a ex of 2nd messenger?
cyclic AMP
NAME
a example of this is cyclic AMP
2nd messenger
What are (3) plasma membrane components that interact to determine intracellular levels of cAMP?
(1)a hormone receptor (2)a singal tranducer (a G protien) (3)an effector enzyme (adenylate cyclase)
What activates the G protien?
GDP
W/ amino acid based hormones the first messenger binds to the receptor causing it to (1)
to change shape and bind to a inactive G protien
NAME
this activates the G protien
GDP
How does the second messenger mechanisms of amino acids based hormones work? (5)
(1)the first messenger binds to the receptor causing it change shape and bind to a inactive G protien (2)the G protien is activated by GDP (3)G protien binds to and activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase and the G protien is displaced by high energy compound GTP(4)the activated cyclase generates the 2nd messenger cAMP from ATP (5)cAMP triggers a cascade of chemical reactions in which in one or more enzymes called protien kinases are activated
what does GTP stand for?
Guanosine triphosphate
What is GTP?
deactivates the G protien
NAME
deactiavates the G protien
GTP
what is GDP?
activates the G protien
for amino-based hormones, the activate G protien binds to and activates the enyzyme, (1)
adenylate cyclase
w amino acid based homrones, the actiavted adenylate cyclase generates the (1)
the 2nd messenger from ATP
w amino based hormones, the (1)generates the 2nd messenger from ATP
activated adenylate cyclase
w amino acid based hormones, cAMP can trigger a cascade of chemical reactions in which one or more enzymes called (1) are activated
protien kinases
w amino acid based hormones, (1) can trigger a cascade of chemical reactions in which one or more enzymes called protien kinases are activated
cAMP
each activated adenylae cyclase generates a large number of (1)
cAMP molecules
t or f
a receptor binding of a single hormone molecule could generate millions of final product molecules
true
the sequence of reactions set up into motion by cAMP depends on (1)
type of target cell
what is phospohodiesterase?
is intracellular enzyme that rapidly degrades cAMP
NAME
is a intracellular enzyme that rapidly degrades cAMP
phosphodiesterase
Why is it good thing that phosphoiesterase degrades cAMP?
bc cont production of hormones prompts conted cellular activity
t or f
bc of the amplifiaction effect, most hormones only need to be present briefly to cause the desired results
True
Bc of the (1), most hormones only need to be present to cause the desired results
amplification effect
T or F
some hormones act through a different 2nd messenger other than cAMP--Ca
true
What is the other 2nd messenger that some hormones act through?
Ca
what is PIP2?
is a plasma membrane phoshpolipod that is split into DAG and IP3 by phospholipase
during the PIP-calcium signal mechanism, the actiavted G protien binds and activates membrane bound (1)
phospholipase
During the PIP-calcium signal mechanism, phospholipase splits the plasma membrane phospholipid called the (1) into (2) and (3)
(1)PIP2 (2)DAG (3)IP3
What are the 2nd messengers for the PIP-CA signal mechanism? (2)
(1)DAG (2)IP3
NAME
examples are DAG and IP3
are 2 messengers for the PIP-Ca mechanims
NAME
is a plasma membrane phospholipid that is split into IP3 and DAG by phospholipase
PIP2
What does DAG stand for?
diacyglycerol
What does IP3 stand for?
inositol trphosphate
what are the steps for PIP-Ca mechanism? (6)
(1)hormone docking on the receptor causes it to bind to the nearby inactive G protien (2)the G protien is activated by GTP and displaced by GDP (3)the activated G-protien then binds and activates membrane bound phospholipase and the G protien becomes inactive (4)Phospholipase splits a plasma mebrane phospholipid called PIP2 into DAG and IP3 and both of these messengers acts as 2nd messengers (5)DAG activates specfic protien kinases and IP3 triggers the release of Ca2+ from the ER and other storage sites (6)the liberated Ca2+ takes on the 2nd messenger role, then once Ca2+ binds to calmodulin, enzymes are activated that amplify the cellular response
DAG activates (1)
specfic protien kinases
NAME
this 2nd messenger activates specic protien kinases
DAG
NAME
this 2nd messenger triggers the release of Ca2+ from the er and other intracellular storage sites
IP3
IP3 triggers the release of (1)from the er or other intracellular storage sites
Ca2+
How are two ways that Ca2+ takes on a 2nd messenger role in the PIP-Ca mechanism?
(1)directly altering the activity of specfic enzymes and plasma membrane Ca2+ channels or (2)binding to the intracellular regulatory protien calmodulin
by either directly altering the activity of specfic enzymes and plasma membrane Ca2+ channels or binding to the intracellular regulatory protien calmodulin

are two ways that (1) acts like a 2nd messenger in the PIP-Ca mechanism
Ca2+
what is calmodulin?
is a intracellular regulatory protien
NAME
is a intracellular regulatory protien
calmodulin
T or F
some other acid based hormones may act on thier target cells through different mechanisms such as cGMP
true
Some other acid based hormones may act on thier target cells through their target cells through different mechanisms such as (1)
cGMP
Give a example of one acid based hormone that does not work w the help of 2nd messengers?
insulin
Insuldin is a example of a hormone that does not (1)
work w the help of a 2nd messenger
how does the insulin work? (2)
the insulin receptor isa tyrosin kinase enzyme that is activated by autophosphorylation when insulin binds (2)the activated receptor provides docking sites for intracellular relay protiens that in turn initiate a series of protien phosphorylation that trigger specfic cells responses
T or F
steriod hormones cannot diffuse into thier target cells
false
Can steriod hormones diffuse into thier target cells?
yes
hormone binds to a DNA assocaited (1) for it. the only exception to this is (2)
(1)receptor protien (2)thryoid hormone
How is the thyroid hormone bind to DNA differntly?
by the binding of the hormone to the receptor protien causing a gene to turn on that prompts the transcription of DNA to produce RNA
T or F
in order for a target cell to respond to a hormone, the cell must have a specfic protein receptors on the plasma membrane
true
in order for a target cell to respond to a hormone, the cell must have a (1)
specfic protein receptors on the plasma membrane
Hormones are (1) rather than informational molecules
molecular triggers
NAME
are molecular triggers are molecular triggers rather than informational molecules
hormones
What are the (3) factors that determine target cell activation by hormone-receptor actiavtion?
(1)blood levels of the homrone (2)relative numbers of receptors for that hormone on or in the target cells (3)affinity of the bond btwn the hormone and the receptor
What does affinity mean?
strength
NAME
means strength
affinity
what is up regulation?
is the phenomenon in which target cells form more receptors in response to rising blood levels of the specfic hormones to which they respond
NAME
is the phenomenon in which target cells form more receptors in response to rising blood levels of the specfic hormones to which they respond
up regulation
What is down regulation?
is when prolonged exposure to high hormone concentrations dsensitizes the target cells, so that they respond less vigorously to hormone stimulation
NAME
is when prolonged exposure to high hormone concentrations dsensitizes the target cells, so that they respond less vigorously to hormone stimulation
down regulation
down regulation involves the (1)
loss of receptors
down regulation can prevent the (1)
the target cells from overreacting to presistently high hormone levels
NAME
involves the loss of receptors and can prevent the target cells from overreacting to presistently high hormone levels
down regulation
NAME
influence the number and affinity not only thier own receptors but also of the receptors that respond to other hormones
hormones
T or F
hormones influence the number and affinity not only thier own receptors but also of the receptors that respond to other hormones
true
NAME
are potent chemicals, and can exert profound effects on thier target organs at very low concentrations
hormones
What are two ways that hormones that circulate the blood? (2)
(1)free (2)bound to a protien carrier
In general what type of homrones are circulate through the blood by a protien carrier?
lipid souble hormones (steroids and thyroid hormones)
What does the concentration of a circulating hormone in a blood affect? (2)
(1)its rate of release (2)the speed at which it is inactivated and removed from the body
NAME
this reflects the hormones rate of release and the speed at which it is inactivated and removed from the body
concentration of a circulating hormone
How are most hormones removed from the body?
the kidneys or liver
Some hormones are rapidly (1) but most are removed from the blood by the kidneys or liver
enzymes
What is a half-life?
the length of time a hormone remains in the blood from one min to 30 mins
NAME
the length of time a hormone remains in the blood from one min to 30 mins
half life
What hormone has the shortest half-life?
water soluble hormones
Water soluble hormones have the shorest (1)
half life
T or F
the time required for a hormone effects to appear does not vary greatly
false
describe how long its takes to see the affect of a hormone
some hormones provoke target organ respones immediatly, while others particulary the steriod hormones require hours or days for thier effects to be seen
T or F
the effects of a hormone may disappear rapidly as blood levels drop or they may presist for hours after very low hormone levels have been reached
true
What are the different types of hormone interaction? (3)
(1)permissiveness (2)synergism (3)antagonism
NAME
include permisssiveness, synergism, and antagonism
hormone interaction
What is permisssiveness?
is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects w/out another hormone being present
NAME
is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects w/out another hormone being present
permissiveness
What is synergism?
occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified
NAME
occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified
synergism
Give a exmaple of permissiveness?
for normal timely development of reproductive structures, w/out thyroid hormone, reproductive structure system development is delayed
NAME
for normal timely development of reproductive structures, w/out thyroid hormone, reproductive structure system development is delayed
permissiveness
NAME
a example is when both glucagon and epinephrine cause the liver to release glucose to the blood when they act together
synergism
What is antagonism?
is when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone
NAME
is when one hormone opposes the action of anotehr hormone
antagonism
What is insulin?
lowers the blood suger levels
NAME
this lowers the blood suger levels
insulin
What is glucagon?
acts to raise blood sugar levels
NAME
acts to raise blood sugar levels
glucagon
the synthesis and release of most hormones are regulated by some type of (1)
negative feedback system
What is negative feeback system? (2)
is when hormone secretion is triggered by some internal or external stimulation (2) as the hormone levels rise, they cause the target organ effects and inhibit further hormone release
NAME
is when hormone secretion is triggered by some internal or external stimulation and as the hormone levels rise, they cause the target organ effects and inhibit further hormone release
negative feedback system
What stimulates endocrine glands to release and stimulate hormones? (3)
(1)humoral stimluli (2)neural stimuli (3)hormonal stimuli
Endocrine glands are (1) by thee major facors:humoral, neural, and hormonal.
to release and stimulate thier hormones
What is humoral stimuli?
is when endocrine glands secrete their hormones in direct responses to chnaging blood levels and certain ions and nutrients
NAME
is when endocrine glands secrete thier hormones in direct response to changing blood levels and certain ions and nutrients
humoral stimuli
How do u tell the difference btwn humoral and hormonal stimuli?
by the word humor in humoral refers to various body fluids such as blood, bile, and others
What does humor mean?
refers to the various body fluids like blood, and bile.
NAME
refers to various body fluids like blood, and bile
humor
NAME
is the simplist of tthe endocrine control system
humoral stimuli
NAME
a example of this is when cells of parathryoid glands monitor blood Ca2+ levels, and when they detect a decline from a normal values,, they secrete parathyroid horomones
humoral stimuli
What are some hormones are released in response to humoral stimuli? (3)
(1)PTH (2)insulin (3)aldosterone
PTH, insulin, and aldosterone are released in response to this stimuli
humoral stimuli
What neural stimuli?
is when nerve fibers stimulate hormone release
NAME
is when nerve fibers stimulate hormone release
neural stimuli
What is the classic example of neural stimuli?
is when the sympathetic nervous system stimulation of the adrenal medulla to release catecholamines during periods of stress
NAME
is when the sympathetic nervous system stimulation of the adrenal medulla to release catecholamines during periods of stress
neural stimuli
What is a hormonal stimuli?
is when many endocrine glands release thier hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs
NAME
is when many endocrine glands release thier hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs
hormonal stimuli
NAME
a example of this stimuli is when the release of most anterior pituitary hormones is regulated by releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus
hormonal stimuli
Give a example of hormonal stimuli?
is when the release of most anterior pituitary hormones is regulated by releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus
What organ produced insulin?
pancreas
The pancreas produces (1)
insulin
T or F
endocrine organs only respond to one stimuli
False
How many stimuli can some endocrine glands respond to?
multiple
Both turn on factors (1,2,3)and "turn off" factors"(4) can be modified by the nervous system
(1)hormmonal (2)humoral (3)neural (4)feedback inhibition and others
Both turn on factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural) and "turn off" factors can be modified by the (1)
nervous system
W/out "turn off" and "turn on", the endocrine system would be like a (1)
thermostat
T or F
the nervous system can in, certain cases, override normal endocrine controls as needed to mantain homestasis
true
When the body is under severe stress, why do blood sugar levels rise?
bc the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system centers are strongly activated
The pituitary gland can also be called the (1)
hypophysis
The (1) can also be called the hypophysis
pituitary gland
What is the pituitary gland?
is securaly seated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and secretes at least nine hormones
NAME
is securaly seated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and secretes at least nine hormones
pituitary gland
Where is the pituitary gland located?
is securaly seated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
What does the pituitary gland look like?
is set to be a pea on a stalk
NAME
is said to look like a pea on a stalk
pituitary gland
What is the infundibiulum?
is the stalk part of the pituitary gland that connects the gland to the hypothalamus superiorly
NAME
is the stalk part of the pituitary gland that connects the gland to the hypothalamus superiorly
infundibiulum
NAME
this has two major lobes: the posterior lobe and the anterior lobe
pituitary gland
What are the two major lobes of the pituitary glands?
(1)the anterior lobe (2)posterior lobe
Describe the two major lobes of the pituitary glands?
one is made of neural tissue and the other glandular tissue
What is the posterior pituitary lobe?
composed largely of pituicytes and nerve fibers
NAME
is composed largely of pituicytes and nerve fibers
posterior pituitary lobe
What is the function of the posterior pituitary lobe?
releases neurohormones thus acting as a hormone-storage area
NAME
releases neurohormones thus acting as a hormone-storage area
the posterior pituitary lobe
Is the posterior pituitary lobe considered a true endocrine gland? if no explain why.
no bc its a hormone storage area
T or F
the posterior pituitary lobe is considered a true endocrine gland
false
T or F
the term neurohypophysis refers only to the posterior pituitary lobe
flase
What is neurohypohysis?
is the region that consists of the posterior pituitary lobe and the infundibulum
NAME
refers to the region consisting of the posterior pituitary lobe and the infundibulume
neurohypohysis
What is the anterior pituitary lobe?
is composed of glandular tissue and it manufactures and releases a number of hormones
NAME
is composed of glandular tissue and it manufactures and releases a number of hormones
anterior pituitary gland
How is arterial blood delivered to the pituitary gland?
via the hypophyseal branches of the internal carotid arteries
NAME
the arterial blood is delivered to the pituitray gland via the hypophyseal branches of the internal carotid arteries
pituitary gland
T or F
the posterior pituitary lobe is part of the brain
true
How does the posterior pituitary lobe mantain its neuarl connection w the hypothalamus?
through the nerve bundle hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
What is the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract?
is the the neural connection tbwn the posterior pituitary lobe and the hypothalmus
NAME
is the neural connection btwn the posterior pituitary lobe and the hypothalmus
hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
Where is the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract located?
it runs through the infundibulum
NAME
runs through the infundibulm
hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
Where does the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract arise from?
neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
NAME
arises from the neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
What do the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei do?
these neurosecretory cells synthesize two neurohormones and transport them along thier axons to the posterior pituitary lobe
NAME (2)
these neurosecretory cells synthesize two neurohormones and transport them along thier axons to the posterior pituitary lobe
supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
What two hormones do the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei synthesize? (2)
(1)oxytocin (2)ADH
NAME
synthesizes the oxytocin and the antidiuetic hormones
supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
What makes Oxytocin?
is made by the paraventricular neurons
NAME
this is made by the paraventricular neurons
Oxytocin
What is the antidieretic hormone made by?
the supraoptic neurons
NAME
is made by the supraoptic neurons
ADH
Where does the anterior pituirtay lobe orginate from?
the superior outpocketing of the oral mucosa and is formed from the epitheal tissue
NAME
is the superior outpocketing of the oral mucosa and is formed from the epitheal tissue
the anterior pituitary lobe
T or F
there is a direct neural connection btwn the anterior lobe and hypothalamus
false
Is there a neural connection btwn the anterior lobe and hypothalamus? if no what type of connection is there?
no but there is a vascular connection
NAME
thier is a vascular connection aka the primary capillary plexus in the infundibulum communicates inferiorly via the small hypophyseal portal viens w the secoundary capillary plexus
anterior pituitray lobe
The primary capillary plexus in the (1) communicates inferiorly via the small hypophyseal portal veins w the secoundary capillary plexus in the (2)
(1)infundibululm (2)anterior pituitary lobe
the(1)in the infundibulum communicates inferiorly via the (2)w the (3)in the anterior pituitary lobe
primary capillary plexus (2)small hypophyseal portal viens (3)secoundary capillary plexus
What does hypersecretion mean?
means that to much of a particle hormone was produced
NAME
means that to much of a particlar hormone was produced
hypersecretion
What is hyposecretion?
is when not enough of a hormone is produced
NAME
is when not enough of a hormone is produced
hyposecretion
The hypersecretion of the GH results in (1)
gigantism
The (1) of the (2) results in gigantism
(1)hypersecretion (2)gigantism
NAME
is when a person becomes abnormally tall often reaching a height of 8 ft tall
gigantism
the hypersecretion in children results in gigantism as the still active (1) are targeted by the GH
(1)epiphyseal plates
if excressive amounts of GH are secreted after the epihyseal plates have closed, (1) will result
acromegaly
When does acromegaly ocur?
when excressive amounts of GH are secreted after the epihyseal plates are closed
What is acromegaly?
this is a condition in charcaterized by the over growth of bony areas still responsive to GH such as the extermites
What does acromegaly literally translate into?
enlarged extermites
NAME
this conidtion literally transaltes into "enlarged extermites"
acromegaly
What does the hypersecretion of GH normally result from?
adenohypohyseal tumor that churns out excessive amounts of GH
NAME
the hypersecretion of this hormone usally ocurs bc of a adenohyphyseal tumor that churns out excessive amounts of this hormone
GH
T or F
people w gigantism and pituitary dwarfism tend to have fairly normal body proportions
true
What is pituitary dwarfism?
is a GH deficeiency in children that results in slowed long bone growth
NAME
is GH defciency in children in results in slowed lone bone growth
pituitary dsarfism
T or F
if pituitary dwarfism is diagnosed before puberty, GH replacement therapy can promote nearly normal somatic growth
true
What does TSH stand for?
thyroid stimulating hormone
TH can also be called (1)
thyrotropin
(1) can also be called thyrotropin
TH
What is TH?
is a tropic hormone that stimulates normal development and secretory activity of the thyroid gland
NAME
is a tropic hormone that stimulates normal development and secretory activity of the thryoid gland
TH
NAME
this hormone is released from the thyrotrope cells from the anterior cells of the anterior pituitary gland
TSH
TSH is released from the (1)of the (2)
(1)thyrotrope cells (2)anterior pituitary gland
What are throtrope cells?
cells that release TSH
NAME
are cells that release TSH
throtrape cells
What triggers the release of TSH from the thyrotrope cells?
TRH
NAME
the release of this hormone is triggered by the hypothalamic peptide TRH
TSH
What does TRH stand for?
thyrotropin-releasing hormone
What does TRH stand for ?
thyrothropin-releasing hormone
What is TRH?
causes the release of TH
rising blood levels of throid hormones act on both the pituirtary and hypothalamus to (1)
inhibit TSH secretion
What does ACTH stand for?
adrenocorticotropic hormone
What does ACTH stand for?
adrenocortricotropic hormone
ACTH can also be called (1)
corticotropin
(1) can also be called corticotropin
ACTH
Where is ACTH secreted from?
the corticotrope cells of the adenohypohysis
NAME
this hormone is secreted from the corticotrope cells of the adenohypohysis
ACTH
What are corticotrope cells?
release ACTH
NAME
this cells release ACTH
corcicotrope cells
What triggers the release of ACTCH?
CRH
What is CRH?
triggers the release of ACTCH
What does CRH stand for?
corticotropin-releasing hormone
What does FSH stand for?
follicle stimulating hormone
What does LH stand for?
lutenizing hormone
NAME
this hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteriod hormones, most importantly glucocorticoids that help the body to resist stressers
ACTH
What is the cycle of ACTH like?
has a daily rhythm w levels peaking in the morning, shortly after one arises
NAME
this hormone has a daily rhythm w levels, peaking in the morning, shortly after one arises
ACTH
When are levels of ACTH the highest?
during the morning when u first arise
What are the gonatropins? (2)
refers to both LH and FSH,
NAME
collectivly LH and FSH are called this
gonadtropins
What are the function of gonadtropins?
to regulate the function of the gonads
NAME
these hormones regulate the function of the gonads
gonadtropins
In both sexes, (1)stimulates gamete production
FSH
In both sexes, FSH stimulate (1)
gamete production
In both sexes, (1) promotes production of gondal hormones
LH
In both sexes, LH promotes (1)
production of the gondal hormones
How do both LH and FSH work together in females?
LH works w FSH to cause maturation of an egg containing ovarian follicles
in females, after LH works w FSH to cause maturation of an egg containing ovarian follicle, what does LH do?
LH triggers ovulation and promotes synthesis and release of ovarian hormones
In females both (1) and (2) work together to cause maturation of an egg contaning ovarian follicle
(1)LH (2)FSH
(1) triggers ovulation and promotes synthesis and release of ovarain hormones
LH
In males, what does LH do by itself?
stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to produce the testosterone
NAME
this hormone in males, stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone
LH
LH is somestimes called the (1) in males
ICSH
(1) is sometimes called the ICSH n males
Lh
What does ICS stand for?
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
are thier gonadtropins in boys and girsl before puberty?
no
T or F
Ginadtropins are present in boys and girls before puberty
false
During puberty, (1) of the (2) are activated and gonadotropin levels begin to rise, causing the gonads to mature
(1)gondatrope cells of the adenohypopohysis
During puberty, the gondatrope cells of the adenohypopohysis levels begin to rise causing (1)
the gonads to mature
What causes the release of the gonadotropins?
GnRH
NAME
this triggers the release of the gonadotropins
GnRH
What does GnRH stand for?
gonadotropin-releasing hormone
What is GNrH?
causes the release of the gonadotropins
Gondal hormones produced in reponse to the gonadtropins, feed back to supress (1)and release (2)
(1)FSH (2)LH
(1)produced in response to gonadtropins, feedback to supress FSH and release LH
(1)gondal hormones
What can the gondal hormones produced in response to gonadtropins cause? (2)
(1)supress the release of FSH (2)release LH
What does PRL stand for?
prolactin
What does PRL stand for ?
prolactin
What is PRL?
is a protien hormone similar to GH
NAME
is a protien hormone similar to GH
PRL
Where is the PRL produced?
in the lactropes
NAME
this produces PRL
lactropes
What are the lactropes?
produce PRL
NAME
this hormone stimulates the gonads of some animals and considered a gonaodotropin by some researchers
PRl
What controls the release of PRL?
PRH
NAME
this hormones release is controled by PRH
PRL
What is the PRL?
stimulates the release of PRL
What does PRL stand for?
prolactin releasing hormone
What does PIH stand for?
PRL inhibiting hormone
NAME
this inihbits PRL
PIH
What is PIH?
inhibits PRL
PIH is now known to be a (1) called (2)
(1)neurotransmitter called (2)DA
(1) this hormone, is now known to be a neurotransmitter called DA
PIH
What does DA stand for?
dopamine
What does DA stand for?
dopamine
in females, the levels of PRL, rise and fall in rythym w (1)levels
estrogen
NAME
in females the levels, of this hormone rises and falls in rythym w estrogen levels
PRL
low estrogen levels stimulates the release of (1)
PIH
What stimulates the release PIH?
low estrogen levels
high estrogen levels stimulates the release of (1)
PRH
(1) levels stimulates the release of PRH
high estrogen
In pregant women, (1)blood levels rise dramatically toward the end of pregancy and milk production is possible
PRL
An infant's suckling stimulates (1)release in mothers and encourging milk production
PRL
Which is more common the hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PRL?
hypersecretion
T or F
the hypersecretion of PRL is more common than the hyposecretion of PRL
true
NAME
some clinical signs of this are inappropriate laction, lack of menses, infertility in females, breast enlargement and impotence in males
hypersecretion of PRL
What are (6) hormones produced by the anterior piuitary lobe?
(1)GH (2)TSH (3)ACTH (4)FSH (5)LH (6) PRL
NAME
this produces 6 hormones:GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, and PRl
anterior pituitary lobe
What are the (2) posterior pituitary hormones?
(1)Oxytocin (2)ADH
NAME
this produces 2 hormones:oxytocin and ADH
the posterior pituitary lobe
What are the 9 hormones that the pituitary gland can produce?
(1)GH (2)TSH (3)ACTH (4)FSH (5)LH (6)PRL (7)Oxytocin (8)ADH
what is the def of the posterior pituitary hormones?
are hormones that are made by the hypothalamic neurons and stored in posterior pituitary lobe
NAME
refers to the hormones that are made by the hypothalamic neurons and stored in the posterior lobe
posterior pituitary hormones
What makes the posterior pituitary hormones?
the hypothalamic neurons
What makes Oxytocin and ADH?
the hypothalamic neurons
The hypothalamic neurons make this two hormones: (1) and (2)
(1)oxytocin (2)ADH
What does ADH stand for?
antidiuertic hormones
ADH are also called (1)
vasopressin
(1) are also called vasopressin
ADH
T or F
oxytocin are almost indentical
true
How do oxyotcin and ADH differ?(3)
they differ by two amino acid (2)ADH infleunces body water balance (3)Oxytocin stimulates contraction of smooth muscle particularly that of the uterus and breasts
Oxyotcin and ADH differ only by (1)
2 amino acids
NAME
this hormone infleunces body water balance
ADH
NAME
this hormone stimulates contraction of smooth muscles particullay that of the utereus and breasts
ADH
What 2nd messengers do the posterior pituitary hormones use/
PIP-Ca 2nd messenger mechanism
What is Oxytocin?
is a strong stimulant of uterine contraction that is released signficantly higher during childbirth
NAME
is a strong stimulant of uterine contraction that is released signficantly higher during childbirth
Oxytocin
NAME
blood levels of this hormone rise during the expulsive contractions of labor
Oxytocin
Oxytocin can also act as the hormonal trigger for (1)
milk ejection
NAME
this hormone can also cause milk ejection in women whose breasts are producing milk in response to PRL
Oxytocin
Milk ejection is a (1)
postive feedback mechansim
(1) is a example of a postive feedback mechanism
milk ejection
NAME
new studies show that this hormone plays a role in sexual arousal and orgasm when the body is already primed for reproduction by sex hormones
Oxytocin
What do new studies done on Oxytocin show?
Oxytocin plays a role in sexual arousal and orgasm when the body is already primed for reproduction by sex hormones
NAME
in non-sexual relationships, this hormone is thought to promote nurturing and affectionate behavior--thus getting its name as the "cuddle hormone"
Oxytocin
NAME
this hormone is sometimes refered to as the "cuddle hormone"
Oxytocin
What is Diuresis?
refers to urine production
NAME
refers to urine production
Diuresis
What is a antidiuretic?
is a substance that inhibits or prevents urine formation
NAME
is a substance that inhibits or prevents urine formation
antidiuretic
NAME
this hormone prevents wide swings in water balance, helping the body avoid dehydration and water overload
ADH
What is ADH?
prevents wide swings in water balance, helping the body avoid dehydration and water overload
What are osmorereceptors?
are hypothalamic neurons that continually monitor the solute conecentration in the blood
NAME
are hypothalamic neurons that continually monitor the solute concentration in the blood
osmorereceptors
ADH targets (1)
kidney tubules
What are two kinds of drinks that can inhibits ADH?
(1)alcholol (2)excessive amounts of water
What are duiertic drugs?
antagonize the effects of ADH and cause water to be flushed from the body
NAME
this drugs antagonize the effects of ADH and cause water to be flushed from the body
dieuertic drugs
Drinking alcholohic beverages (1), resulting in the dry mouth and intense thirst of the morning after
ADH
NAME
these drugs are used to manage some cases of hypertension and the edema typical of congestive heart failure
diuretic drugs
What is edema?
is water retention in tissues
NAME
is water retention in tissues
edema
Under certain conditions, such as severe blood loss, expetionally large amounts of ADH are released causing a (1)
rise in blood pressure
Under certain conidtions such as severe blood loss, expetionally large amounts of (1) are released into the blood--causing a rise in blood pressure
ADH
One result of a ADH deficeiency is (1)
diabtes insipidus
What is diabtes insipidus?
is a syndrome marked by the output of huge amounts of urine and intense thrist
NAME
is a syndrome marked by the output of huge amounts of urine and intense thrist
diabtes inspidus
How can you tell the differ bwtn diabtes insipdud and diabtes mellitus?
(1)diabtes refers to overflow and insipidus means tastless (2)mel refers to honey (3)Therefore, diabtes inspidus is marked by large output of urine and intense thrist (4)diabtes mellitus is a insulin defiency that causes large amounts of blood sugars to be lost in the urine
What is diabtes mellitus?
is a insulin deficiency that causes large amounts of blood sugar to be lost in the urine
NAME
is a inulin deficieny that causes large amounts of blood sugar to be lost in the urine
diabtes mellitus
What can cause diabates insipdus?
(1)a blow to the head that damages the hypothalamus or the posterior pituitary lobe
NAME
this can be caused by a blow to the head that damages the hypothalamus or the posterior pituitary lobe
diabtes insipdus
When the ADH release is deficient, it is not serious if the (1)
thirst centers is operating properly and the person drinks enough water to prevent dehydration
When ADH release is deifient, when can it be harmful? (2)
if the person is unconscious or is a comatose patients
What can cause the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion? (4)
in children w meningitis (2)may follow neurosurgery (3) hypothalamic injury (4)after general anesthesia
NAME
this can be found in children w meningitis, neurosurgry or hypothalamic injury, or even after general anesthesia
the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion
What is the SIAH?
is marked by the retention of fluid, headache, and disorientatin due to brain edema, weight gain, and hypo-osmolarity of the blood
is marked by the retention of fluid, headache, and disorientatin due to brain edema, weight gain, and hypo-osmolarity of the blood
SIADH
What does SIADH stand for?
syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion?
How can SIADH be treated?
fluid restriction and careful monitoring of the blood sodium levels
NAME
this treated by fluid restriction and careful monitoring of the blood sodium levels
SIADH
What is the thyroid gland?
is a butterfly shaped gland located in the anterior of the neck, on the trachea just inferior to the larnyx
NAME
is a butterfly shaped gland located in the anterior of the neck, on the trachea just inferior to the larnyx
thyroid gland
What is the thyroid gland shaped like?
a butterfly
Where is the thyroid gland located?
in the anterior neck, on the trachea just inferior to the larynx
Describe the thyroid gland
has two lateral lobes that are connected isthmus
What is isthmus?
is a median tissue that connects the two lateral lobes of the thyroid gland
NAME
is a mediain tissue tht connects the two lateral lobes of the thyroid gland
ishthmus
NAME
this organ has two lateral lobes connected by a median tissue called isthmus
thyroid gland
What is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body
throid gland
NAME
is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body
thryoid gland
The thyroid gland is the (1)endocrine gland in the body
largest pure
Why is thyroid surgery painstaking and a bloody endeavor?
bc it gets its blood supply from the inferior and superior arteries
What does the thyroid gland look like internally?
is composed of hollow, spherical follicles
NAME
this gland, internally, is composed of hollow, spherical follicles
thryoid gland
Internally, the thyroid gland is composed of hollow, spherical (1)
follicles
The walls of each follicle are formed largely by (1)
cubdoial or squamous epithelial cells called follicle cells
The (1) are formed by cubdoial or squamous epithelial cells called follicle cells
walls of each follicle
What are follicle cells?
produce the glycoprotien thyroglobulin
What do follicle cells form?
the walls of each follicle
NAME
these cells produce the glycoprotien thyroglobulin
follicle cells
The central cavity or lumen of the follicle stores (1)
colloid
What is the lumen?
are the central cavity
NAME
are the central cavity
lumen
Where is the colloid stored?
in the lumen of the follicle
What is the colloid
is an amber colored sticky material consisting of thryoglobulin molecules w attached iodine atoms
NAME
is an amber colored sticky material consisting of thryglobulin molecules w attached iodine atoms
colloid
The thyroid hormones is derived from (1)
iodinated thyroglobulin
NAME
this hormone is derived from the iodinated thyroglobulin
thryoid hormone
What are parafollicular cells?
produce a hormone called the calcitonin
NAME
these cells produce the hormone called calcitonin
parafollicular cells
NAME
this hormone is often refered to as the major ?metabolic hormone
TH
How is the TH broken down chemically
into two amine hormones:T4 or T3
NAME
this hormone is composed of tow amine hormones: T4 or T3
TH
T4 is also called (1)
thyroxine
(1) is also called the thyroxine
T4
T3 is also called (1)
triiodothyronine
(1) is also called triiodothyronine
T3
What is the major hormone secreted by the thyroid follcles?
T4
How is the majority of T3 formed?
at the target tissue by conversion of T4 to T3
NAME
the majority of this hormone is formed at the target cells from the conversion of T4
T3
How are T3 and T4 different?
the is the principal difference is that T4 has four bound iodine atoms (2)T3 has three boud iodine atoms
T or F
TH affects viturally every cell in the body
true
What does TH stand for?
thyroid hormone
What are the only organs, does the TH affect? (5)
(1)adult brain (2)spleen (3)testes (4)uterus (5)thyroid gland
NAME
Except for the adult brain, spleen, testes, the utereus, and the thyroid gland, affects virtually every organ in the body
TH
What is the carlorigenic effect?
refers to TH stimulates enzymes concerened w glucose oxidation, increase basal metabolic rate and body heat production
NAME
this refers to when TH stimulates enzymes concerned w glucose oxidation, increase basal metabolic rate and body heat production
carlorigenic effect
Why does TH play an important role in blood pressure?
bc provekes an increase in the number of adrenergic receptors in the blood vessesls
NAME
this muscle can proke an increase in the number of adrengergic receptors in the blood vessels, affecting blood pressure
TH
TH can provoke a increase in the (1)in the blood vessels
number of adrengergic receptors
NAME
this hormone, can also play a key role in regular tissue growth and development
TH
NAME
this hormone, is espceially critical for normal skeletal and nervous system development and maturation and for reproductive capablitlies
TH
What are the (6) processes of TH synthesis?
(1)formation and storage of thyrogloblin (2)iodid trapping and oxidation to iodine (3)iodination (4)coupling of T2 to T1 (5)colloid endocytosis (6)cleavage of the hormone for release
NAME
this hormones sysnthesis is as follows:
(1)formation and storage of thyrogloblin (2)iodid trapping and oxidation to iodine (3)iodination (4)coupling of T2 to T1 (5)colloid endocytosis (6)cleavage of the hormone for release
TH
during the synthesis of TH, where is the thyroglobin stored?
in the Golgi Apparatus
During the synthesis of TH, what happens in the Golgi Apparatus? (2)
sugar residues are attached and molecules are packed into vesicles (2)these transport vesicles move to the apex of the follicle cell, where thier contents are discharged into the follicle lumen and become part of the stored colloid
What must happen in order to produce functional iodianted hormones?
need iodides
iodide trapping depends on, what kind of transporation?
active transport
What is iodination?
refers to when once formed when iodine is attached to tyrosine amino acids that form part of the thyroglobulin colloid
NAME
this refers to the step during TH synthesis when once formed, iodine is attached to tyrosine amino acids that form part of the thyroglobulin colloid
iodination
Where does iodination ocur?
at the apical follicle cell-colloid junction
NAME
this ocurs at the apical follicle cell-colloid juntion
iodination
MIT can also be called (1)
T1
(1) can also be called T1
MIT
What does MIT stand for?
monoiodotyrosine
What does MIT stand for?
monoiodotyrosine
What is MIT?
is produced by the attachment of one iodine to a tyrosine
NAME
is one iodine attached to a tyrosine
MIT
DIT can also be called (1)
T2
(1) can also be called T2
DIT
What does DIT stand for?
diiodotyrosine
What does DIT stand for?
diiodotyrosine
What DIT?
is two iodines attached together
NAME
is two iodines attached together
DIT
What is DIT?
is two iodines attached together
How is T3 produced?
coupling MIT and DIT
NAME
is formed by the coupling MIT and DIT
T3 produced
Most (1) of this hormone is generated in the peripheral tissues
T3
Most T3 is generated in the (1)
peripheral tissues
What is the main hormonal product secreted at the end of TH synthesis?
T4
What are the levels of TSH like?
they are lower during the day and peak just before sleep and remain in high during the night
NAME
these hormone levels are lower during the day and peak just before sleep and remain in high during the night
TSH
How is the thyroid gland unique?
in its ability to store its hormones exterceullarly in large quantities
NAME
this gland is unique in its ability to store its hormones extercellularly in large quantities
thyroid hormone
What does TBGs stand for?
thyroxine binding globulins
What does TBGs stand for?
thyroxine binding globulins
Where are TBGs produced?
by the liver
Most released T4 and T3 cells immmediatly (1)
bind to transport protiens TBGs
Most released (1) and (2) cells bind to transport protiens called TBGS
(1)T4 and (2)T3
Which binds more actively to TBGs, T4 or T3?
T3 binds more avidly and is ten times more active
NAME
this hormone, is more avidly binds to TBGs and is ten times more active then its other component
T3
How does T3 target its cells?
like steriods meaning they directly intiate transpicption by the binding to its intracellular receptor
Falling T4 levels trigger releas e of (1) and (2)
TSH (2)T4
Falling levels of (1) trigger the release of TSH and more T4
T4
Rising T4 levels, inhibit
TSH
Rising (1) levels, iniibits the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis, temporarily shutting off the stimulis for TSH
T4
What conidtions trigger the hypothalamus to make TRH? (2)
(1)pregancy (2)prolonged colds
NAME
conidtions such as the pregancy and prolonged colds can trigger the hypothalamus release this hormone
TRH
As the thyroid glands release largers amounts of thyroid horomones, what happens?
the body metabolism and heat production are enhanced
As the (1) releases larger amounts of (2) hormones, the body metabolism and heat production are enhanceod
(1)thyroid gland (2)thyroid
What is myxedma?
in adults, is the full-blown hypothyroid syndrome
NAME
in adults, this is the full-blown hypothyroid syndrome
myxedma
What are the symptoms of myxedma? (8)
(1)low metabolic rate (2)feeling chilled (3)constipation (4)thick dry skin (5)puffy eyes (6)edema (7)lethargy (8)mental sluggishness
NAME
the symptoms of this are low metabolic rate, feeling chilled, constipation, thick dry skin, puffy eyes, edema, lethargy, and mental sluggishness
myxedma
What is endemic?
a condition in which the thyroid gland enlarges because of lack of iodine
NAME
is a condition in which the thyroid gland enlarges bc of lack of iodine
endemic
Endemic is also refered to as a (1)
goiter
(1) is also refered to as a goiter
Endemic
Why does the thyroid gland protude bc of overproduction of thyroid H? (2)
bc the follicle cells produce a colloid but cannot iodinate it or make functional hormones (2)the pituitary gland secretes TSH in a futile attempt to stimulate TH
NAME
this will result when the follicle cells produce a colloid but cannot iodinate it or make functional hormone
endemic
Before the marking of (1), parts of the MidWest were called the "gioter belt"
iodinized salt
Where can you find iodinized salt if you didnt have it? (2)
(1)fish
What is cretinism?
is severe hypothyroidism in infants
NAME
is severe hypothyroidism in infants
cretinism
What are the symptoms of certinism?
(1)mentally retarded (2)has short disporoptionately sized body and a thick tongue and neck
NAME
children w this disease are mentally retaraded and has a short sized body and a thick tonque and neck
cretinism
The most common hypothyroid pathology is (1)
Grave's disease
What is Graves disease?
people w this condition often contains abnormal antibodies that mimic TSH and continousaly stimulate TH relase
NAME
people w this conidtion often contain abnormal antibodies that mimic TSH and continousaly stimulate TH release
Graves disease
What are the typical symptoms of Grave's disease?
are elevated metabolic rate, sweating, repaid irregular heartbeats, nervousness, and weight loss despite adequate food intake
NAME
are elevated metabolic rate, sweating, rapid irregular heartbeats, nervousness, and weight loss despite adequate food intake
Graves disease
What is exopthalmas?
refers to the protusion of the eyeballs that the ocurs when the tissue behind the eyes becomes edematous
NAME
refers to the protusion of the eyeballs that occurs when the tissue behind the eyes becomes edematous
exopthalamus
What are treatments for Graves disease?
is the ingestion of radioactive iodine
What is Calcitonin?
is the polypeptide hormone produced by the C cells of the thyroid gland
NAME
is the polypeptide hormone produced by the C cells of the thyroid gland
Calcitonin
C cells are also called the (1)
parafollicular
(1) are also called the parafollicular
C cells
What are the most affects of the C cells?
(1)lower Ca2+ levels in blood
C cells lower the Ca2+ levels in the blood, directly (1)
anatgonizing PTH
NAME
these cells lower Ca2+ levels in the blood and directly antagiznes the PH
Calcitonin
What does Calcitonin do when it targest the skeleton? (2)
(1)inhibits osteoclast activity and hence bones resorption and release of Ca2+ from the bony matrix and (2)stimulates Ca2+ uptake and incorporation into the bone matrix
NAME
This (1)inhibits osteoclast activity and hence bones resorption and release of Ca2+ from the bony matrix and (2)stimulates Ca2+ uptake and incorporation into the bone matrix
Calcitonin
Calcitonin targets the (1)
skeleton
excessive blood levels of Ca2+ as a humoral stimulus for (1) release
Calcitonin
excesive blood levels of (1)act as a (2) for release of Calcitonin
(1)Ca2+ (2)humoral stimulus
Declining Ca2+ blood levels inhbit (1)
C cell secretory activity
Declining (1)blood levels inhibit C cell secretory activity
Ca2+
calcitonin appears to be important only in (1)
childhood
What is parathyroid gland?
are tiny, yellow-brown and are nearly hidden from the veiw in the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland
NAME
are tiny, yellow-brown and are nearly hidden from the veiw in the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland
parathyroid gland
The parathyroid glandular cells are arranged in thick branching cells containing scattered (1) and a large number of (2)
(1)oxyphil cells (2)chief cells
the (1) cells are arranged in thick branching cells containing scattered oxyphil cells and a large number of cheif cells
parathyroid glandular
T or F
the function of the oxyphils cells is unclear
false
How was the parathyroid gland found?
by while most patients recovered uneventfully after partial throid gland removal, other suffered uncontroled muscle spasms, and severe pain, some evend died
What does PTH stand for?
parathyroid hormone
What is PTH ?
is the single most important hormone controling the Ca balance of the blood
NAME
is the single most important hormone controling the Ca balance of the blood
PTH
PTH is triggered by (1)
Ca2+ levels
like Calcitonin, (1) is also triggered by the Ca2+ levels
PTH
What inhibits PTH?
by hypercalcemia
NAME
is inhibited by hypercalcemia
PTH
PTH increases Ca2+ levels by stimulating three organs:
(1)skeleton (2)kidneys (3)intestine
(1)increases Ca2+ levels by stimulating these three organs: skeleton, kidneys, and intestine
PTH
What does PTH release do? (3)
oceteoblasts to digest some of the bony matrix and release ionic calcium and phosphates to the blood (2)enhances reabsorption of Ca2+ by the kidneys (3)increases absorption of Ca2+ by the intestional mucosal cells
NAME
the release of this hormone stimulates osteoclasts to digest some of the bony matrix and release ionic ca and phosphates to the blood, enhances reabsorption of Ca2+ by the kidneys, and increases absorption of Ca2+ by the intestinal muscosal cells
PTH
Ca absorption by the intestine is enhanced indirectly by (1)
PTH's effect on vitamin D activation
(1)absorption by the (1) is enhanced indirectly by the PTH's effect on the vitamin D activation
(1)Ca (2)intestine
(1) is required for absorption of Ca2+ from ingested food
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is required for (1)
absorption of Vitamin D
What must happen for Vitamin D to be active and exert its physiological effects?
it must first be converted by the kidneys to its active form D3 or calcitriol
What is calcitriol?
is the active form vitamin D3
NAME
is the active form vitamin D3
calcitriol
Why is the homeostasis of Ca levels so important?
(1) transmission of nerve impulses (2)muscle contraction (3) blood clotting
What is hyperparthyroidism?
is rare and usally the result of a parathyroid gland tumor
NAME
is rare and usally the result of a parathyroid tumor
hyperparthyroidism
What happens when hyperparthyroidism ocurs?
Ca is leached from the bones and the bones soften and deform as thier mineral salts are replaced by fibrous connective tissue
NAME
when this ocurs Ca is leached from the bones and the bones soften and deform as the bones soften and deform as thier mineral salts are replaced by fibrous connective tissue
hyperparathyroidism
What is osteitis cystica fibrosa?
is when the bones have a moth eaten appearnce on X-rays and tend to fracture spontaneously
NAME
is when the bones have a moth-eaten appearnce on X-rays and tend to fracture spontaneously
osteitis cystica fibrosa
What are two results of abnormal elevated Ca2+ levels? (2)
(1)depression of the nervous system which leads to abnormal reflexes and weakness of the skeletal muscles (2)formation of kidney stones as excess Ca salts precipiate in kidney tubules
NAME
if this happens it might cause the depression of the nervous system which leads to abnormal reflexes and weakness of the skeletal muscles, and formation of kidney stones as excess Ca salts preceipate in kidney tubules
abnormal elevated levels of Ca2+ levels
What is metastatic calcification?
is a condition in which Ca depostists may also form in soft tissues throughout the body and severly impairing vital organs
NAME
is condition in which Ca depostist may also form in soft tissues through/out the body and severly impairing vital organs
metastatic calcification
When is hypoparathyroidism?
is a PTH deficeincy most often following parathyroid galnd trauma or removal during thyroid surgury
NAME
is rare and usally a result of a parathyroid gland tumor
hyperparathyroidism
What happens when hyperparathyroidism ocur?
Ca is leached from the bones and the bones soften and deform their mineral salts are replaced by fibrous connective tissue
NAME
when this ocurs Ca is leached from the bones and the bones soften and deform their mineral salts are replaced by fibrous connective tissue
hyperparathyroidism
What is osteitis cytica fibrosa?
is a disorder the bones have a moth eaten appearance X rays and tend to fracture spontaneously
NAME
is a disorder the bones have a moth eaten appearance X rays and tend to fracture spontaneously
osteitis cytica fibrosa
What are some results of abnormal elevated Ca2+ levels? (2)
(1)depression of the nervous system which leads to abnormal reflexes and weakness of the skeletal muscles (2)formation of kidney stones as excess Ca salts precepitate in the kidney tubules
NAME
this may result in the depression of the nervous system which leads to abnormal reflexes and weakness of the skeletal muscles and the formation of kideny stones as excess Ca kidney tubules
abnormal elevated Ca2+ levels
What is metastatic calcification?
a condition in which Ca deposist form soft tissues throughout the body and severly impair vital organ functioning
NAME
a condition in which the Ca deposist form soft tissues throughout the body and severly impair vital organ functioning
metastatic calcification
What is hypoparathyroidism?
is a PTH deficiency most often following parathyroid gland trauma, or removal of the thyroid gland, and even deficiency of dietray Mg
NAME
is a PTH defieciency most often resulting from parathyroid trauma, or removal of the thyroid gland, but can also be a result of a defieciency of deitary MG
hypoparathroidism
What is tetany ?
refers to the loss of senstation
NAME
refers to the loss of sensations
tetany
What is the adrenal gland?
are pyramid shaped organs perched atop the kidneys
nAME
are pyramid shaped organs perched atop the kidneys
adrenal gland
(1) this is also called the suparenal glands
adrenal gland
the adrenal gland is also called the (1)
suparenal gland
What are the two glands that make up the at adrenal gland? (2)
(1)adrenal medulla (2)adrenal cortex
NAME
is made up of the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex
adrenal gland
What is the adrenal medulla?
is more of a knot of nervous tissue than a gland
NAME
is more of a knot of nervous tissue than a gland
adrenal medulla
What is the adrenal cortex?
is a glandular tissue derived from embryonic mesoderm
NAME
is a gladular tissue derived from the embryonic mesoderm
adrenal cortex
What are three hormones produced by the adrenal cortex? (3)
(1)mineralalocrticoids (2)gluccocorticoids (3)gonadocorticoids
NAME
this produces there hormones:mineralocorticoids, gluccocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids
adrenal cortex
What is the mineralocorticoids?
its essential function is the regulation of the electrocylte concentration in extracellular fluids particually of Na+ and K
NAME
its function is the regulation of the electrocylte concentration in extracellular fluids partially of Na+ and K
mineralocorticoids
What is the single most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid?
Na+
Excessive amounts of Na can cause (1)
high blood pressure in susceptible individuals
NAME
is the most potent and accounts for more than 95% of the mineralocorticoids produced
aldosterone
Aldosertone is the most potent and accounts for more than (1) of the mineralocortidcoids produced
95 %
What is aldosterone?
its primary job is to maintaining sodium ion balance
NAME
its primary job is maintaining the sodium ion balance
aldosterone
NAME
this reduces excertion of Na2+ from the body
aldosterone
What is the primary target of aldosterone?
kidney tubules
NAME
also enhances Na+ reabsorption from perspiration, saliva, and gastric juice
aldosterone
What stimulates aldosterone secretion?
(1)rising levels of K+ (2)low blood levels of Na + (3)decreasing blood volumne and blood pressure
NAME
this is stimulated by rising levels of K+, low blood levels of Na+, decreasing vol and blood pressure
aldosterone
What are (4)mechanisms that regulate aldoseterone secretion?
(1)the renin-angiotensin mechanism (2)plasma concentration of sodium and potassium ions (3)ACTH (4)atrial natriueretic peptide
What does ANP stand for?
atrial natrieureptic peptide
What is aldoseteronism?
is the hypersecretion of aldosterone
NAME
is the hypersecretion of aldosterone
aldosecteronism
Aldosteronism typically results from (1)
adreanl neoplasms
NAME
this typically results from adrenal neoplasms
aldosteronism
What are (2) problems that result from aldosteronism?
(1)hypertension and edema due to excessive Na+ and water retensions (2)accelerated exretion of potassium ions
NAME
this will result in these 2 problems: 1)hypertension and edema due to excessive Na+ and water retensions (2)accelerated exretion of potassium ions
aldosteronism
What is addison's disease?
a hyposeretory disease if the adrenal cortex generally involves a defieicent output of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids
NAME
a hyposeretory disease if the adrenal cortex generally involves a defieicent output of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids
Addisions disease
NAME
this is the stress hormone
Glucocorticoids
What are Glucocorticoids?
infleunce the energy metabolism of most body cells and helps us to resist stressors
NAME
infleunce the energy metabolism of most body cells and helps us to resist stressors
glucocorticoids
Under nomral conidtions, (1) help to the body to adapt to intermitten food intake by keeping blood sugar levels fairly constant, and maintain blood volume by preventing the shift of water into tissue cells
glucocorticoids
What are some gluccocorticoids hormones? (2)
(1)cortisol (2)cortisone (3)corticosterone
NAME
these type of hormones include cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone
gluccocorticoids
What regulates gluccocorticoid secretion?
feedback inhibition
Cortisol release is promoted by (1)
ACTH
(1)releae is promoted by ACTH which is triggered by hypothalamic releasing hormone CRH
cortisol
the normal cortisol rhythm is interrupted by (1) as the sympathetic nervous system overrides tehe effects of the elevated cortisol levels and triggers CRH release
stress
Stress can result in dramatic rise in blood levels of (1)
fatty acids, and amino acids
What is cortisol's prime metabolic effect?
provoke gluconeogeneisis
NAME
its prime metabolic effect is to promote gluconeogenesis
cortisol
NAME
this can result in dramatic rise in blood levels of fatty acids and amino acids
cortisol
What is gluconeogeneisis?
is the formation of glucose from fats and protiens
NAME
is the formation of glucose from fats and protiens
gluconeogenesis
Although ideal amounts of glucocorticoids promote normal function, (1) and (2)are associated w cortisol excess
(1)anti-inflammatory (2)anti-immune
Although ideal amounts of (1) promote normal function, anti-inflammatory and anti-immune are associated w (2)excess
(1)gluccorticoids (2)cortisol
What can excessive levels of glucocorticoids do? (3)
(1)depress cartilage and bone formation (2)inhibit inflammation by stabilzing lysomoal membranes and preventing vasodilation (3)depress the immune system (4)promote changes in the cardiovascular, neural, and GI function
NAME
excessive levesl of this can depress the cartilage and bone formation, inhibit inflammation by stabilizing lysomal membranes and preventing vasodilation, depress the immune system, and promote changes in the cardiovascular, nerual, and GI function
glucocorticoids
What is one of the cons of using glucocorticoids for anti-inflammatory and for R aritihis/
they can cause undesirable effects of excessive levels of hormones
What is cushings disease?
is glucocorticoid excess that may be caused by an ACTH releasing tumor
NAME
is disease that is assocaited w glucocorticoid excess that may be caused by an ACTH releasing tumor
cushings disease
Cushing disease most often caused by (1)
glucocorticoid drugs
What are the symptoms of cushing disease? (3)
persistent hyperglycemia, (2)dramatic losses in muscle and bone protien (3)water and salt retention leading to hypertension and edema
NAME
symptoms include persistent hyperglycemia, dramatic losses in muscle and bone protiens, water and salt retention leading to hypertension and edema
cushing disease
What are the signs of cushing disease? (4)
(1)a swollen moon face (2)redistriubution of fat to the abdomen and the posterior neck causing a buffolo hump (3)a tendency to bruise (4)poor wound healing
NAME
the signs of this disease are a swollen moon face, redistriubution of fat to the abdomen and the posterior neck causing a buffolo hump, a tendency to bruise, and poor wound healing
cushing disease
What is the only treatment for cushings disease?
surgical removal of the offending tumor
What is Addison's disease?
is the major hyposecretory disorder of the adrenal cortex
NAME
is the major hyposecerectory disorder of the adrenal cortex
Addison's disease
What are the symptoms of the Addison's disease? (3)
(1)vicitims tend to lose weight (2)thier plasma glucose and sodium levels and potassium levels rise (3)severe dehydration and hypotension
NAME
symptoms include vicitims tend to lose weight, thier plasma glucose and sodium levels and potassium levels rise, and severe dehydration and hypotension
Addison's disease
the bulk of the (1) secreted by hte adrenal cortex are weak androgens
gonadocorticoids
the bulk of gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex are (1)
weak androgens
What are the gonadocorticoids?
are sex hormones
NAME
are the sex hormones
gonadocorticoids
What are androgens?
are male sex hormones
NAME
are male sex hormones
androgens
T or F
the exact role of the adrenal sex hormones is still in question
true
NAME
it is assumed that these hormones contribute to the onset of puberty and the appearnce of axillary and pubic hair during that time
gonadocorticoids
hypersecretion of (1)causes androgenital syndrome
gonadocroticoids
the hypersecretion of gonadocroticoids can cause (1)
androgenital syndrome
What are the symptoms of andorgenital syndrome in males?
maturation of reproductive organs and appearance of secoundary sex characteristics occur rapidly
NAME
in young males, the symptoms include maturation of reproductive organs and appearance of secoundary sex characteristics ocur rapidly
androgenital syndrome in males
What are the symptoms of androgenital syndrome in females?
females develop a beard and a masculine pattern of body hair distribution, and the clitoris grows to resemble a small penis
NAME
females develop a beard and a masculine pattern of body hair distribution, and the clitoris grows to resemble a small penis
androgenital syndrome
Which nervous system is the adrenal medulla part of?
autonomic nervous system
The (1) is part of the autonomic nervous system
adrenal cortex
The adrenal medulla has (1)
choromaffin cells
(1) has choromaffin cells
adrenal
NAME
this secrets epinephrine and norepinephrine
adrena medulla
NAME (2)
the adrena medulla secretes these two hormones
(1)epinephrine (2)norepinephrine
When the body is activated by some short-term stressors, the (1) is moblized
sympathetic nervous system
When the body is actiavted by some (1), the sympathetic nervous system is moblized
short-term stessors
what happens to the blood flow when the flight or flight status is activated?
the blood is diverted from temporarily nonessential organs to the brain, the heart, and muscles
What are some short-term stress responses? (6)
(1)increased heart rate (2)increased blood pressure (3)liver converts glycogen to glucose and releases glucose to the blood (4)dilaiation of the bronchloles (5)changes in blood flow patterns leading to increased alertness, decreasted digestive system activity and reduced urine activity (6)increased metabolic rate
NAME
some responses to this include increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, liver converts glycogen to glucose and releases glucose to the blood, diliation of the bronchololes, changes in blood flow patterns leading to increased alertness, decreased digestive system activity and reduced urine output, and increased metabolic rate
short-term stres responses
What are some long-term stress response? (5)
(1)retnetion of sodium and water by the kidneys (2)increased blood vol and blood pressure (3)protiens and fats converted to glucose or broken down for energy
(4)increased blood sugar(5)supression of immune system
NAME
some responses to this includ retention of sodium and water by kidneys, increased blood vol and blood pressure, protiens and fats converted to glucose or broken down energy, increased blood sugar, and suppression of immune system
long-term stress response
What is Epinephrine?
is the more potent stimulator of the heart and metabolic activites
NAME
is the more potent stimulator of the heart and metabolic activites
Epinephrine
What is norepinephrine?
has a greater influence on peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure
NAME
has a greater influence on peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure
norepinephrine
NAME
is the director of the stress response
hypothalamus
Is a deficiency of adrenal medulla hormones a problem?
no
Why is a deficiency of the adrenal medulla hormones not a problem?
bc hormones of the adrenal medulla merly intensify activites set into motion by the sympathetic nervous system
Where is the pancreas located?
behind the stomach in the abdomen
NAME
this endocrine gland is located behind the stomach in the abdomen
pancreas
What is the pancreas?
is soft and triangular mixed gland composed of both endocrine and exocrine cells
NAME
is a soft and triangular mixed gland composed of both endocrine and exocrine cells
pancreas
NAME
these cells form the bulk of the pancreas gland
Acinar cell
NAME
Acinar cells form the bulk of the this gland
Acinar cell
What are Acinar cells?
form the bulk of the pancreas cells
NAME
these cells produce an enzyme-rich juice that is ducted into the small intestine during food digestion
Acinar cells
What are the pancratic islets?
are tiny cell clusters that produce pancreatic hormones such aplha and beta cells
NAME
are tiny cell clusters that produce pancreatic hormone such alpha and beta cells
pancratic cells
the pancreatic islets are also called (1)
iselets of Langerhans
the (1) are also called the islets of langerhands
pancreatic islets
What are aplha cells?
are glucagon-synthesizing cells
NAME
are glucagon-synthesizing cells
alpha cells
What are beta cells?
are insulin producing cells
NAME
are insulin producing cells
beta cells
NAME
this is a hyperglycemic hormone
insulin
NAME
this is a hypoglycemic hormone
glucagon
What is glucagon's make up?
29 amino acid polypeptide
NAME
this a 29 amino-acid polypeptide and a extermly potent hyperglycemic agent
glucagon
THe major target organ of glycagon is (1)
liver
What are the actions that glucagon does the liver? (3)
(1)breakdown of glycogen to glucose (2)synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and from noncarb molecules (3)release of glucose to the blood by liver cells, which causes blood sugars to rise
NAME
this hormone works by doing the following: the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, synthesis of glucose from latic acid and noncarb molecules, and release of glucose to the blood by liver cells, which causes the blood sugar levels to rise
glucagon
NAME
is the breakdown of glyocgen to glucose
glycogenolysis
What is glycogenolysis?
is the breakdown of glyocgen to glucose
What is gluconeogensis?
is the synthesis of glucose from latic acid and noncarb molecules
NAME
is the synthesis of glucose from latic acid and noncarb molecules
gluconeogensis
What is the make up of insulin like?
is a small protien consisting of two amino acid chains linked by disulfide bonds
NAME
is a small protien consisting of two amino acid chains linked by disulfide bonds
insulin