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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a Bronsted-Lowry acid?
a substance that donates a proton to another substance
What is a BL base?
a substance that accepts a proton from anouther sumstance
What is water in regards to acids and bases?
it is an amphoteric substance. one that can function as either a BL acid or a base
What determines how water will function in a reaction (act as a acid or base)
the substance with which it reacts
What did Arrhenius first recognize in order to classify acids and bases?
the properties of acidic solutions are due to the H+ ion and those of basic solutions are due to OH- ions
What is the Conjugate base of BL acid?
the species that remains when a proton is removed from the acid
What is the Conjugate acid of a BL base?
the species formed by adding a proton to the base
What are the acid and its conj. base (or a base and its conj acid) called?
Cojugate acid-base pair
How are the acid-base strenghts of a conjugate acid-base realted?
The stronger the acid the weaker its conjugate base. the weaker the acid the stronger the conj base.
In every acid-base reaction the position of equal. favors what?
the transfer of the proton from the stronger acid to the stronger base
1.What is Kw called
1.the ion-product constant for water
Water can be both a + acceptor and a + donor, and can donate to anouther water molecule. What is this process called?
The autoionization of water
Describe the process of autoionization.
equalibrium, but rapid reactions in both directions and no molecules are ionized for long.
using the Kw expression, what relationships can be determined involving H and OH?
as H increases OH decreases and Visa Versa. Acidic solutions contain more H than OH and Basic more OH than H
How can the Ph of a solution be measured?
using a pH meter or estimated using an acid-base indicators
As pH decreases what increases?
What [H] is concidered to be > than what
1. Strong acids and bases are both strong_____.
2. How do they exist?
2. in aqueous solution entirely as ions.
Why are equal. arrows not used in equations for stron acids and bases?
because the reaction lies entirely to the right (with the ions)
What are weak acids and bases?
partially ionized in aqueous solution
can be in equalibrium
What is Ka
the acid-dissociation constant
What does the magnitude of Ka indicate?
the tendency of an acid to ionize in water
What does it mean if the value of Ka is larger
The acid is stronger.
percent ionization of reactants=
(final M (x)/ intial M)100
When is it better to use the quadratic formual in solvin for x in and "ICE" equal. equation
when the quantity of x is more than 5% of the initial value.
When does the % ionization of a weak acid decrease?
as concentration increases
What acids are known as Polyprotic acids?
acids that have more than one ionizable H atom
What observation can you make about about the removal of protons from a polyprotic acid?
it is always easier to remove the first proton from a poly. acid than the second, and so on.
What is Kb called?
The base-dissociation constant
What does the constant Kb always refer to?
the equalibrium in which a base reacts with water to form corresponding conjugate acid and OH-
1. As the strength of an acid increases (larger Ka) what happens to the conj base?
2. Why is this?
1.the strength of CB must decrease (smaller Kb)
2. The product of Ka X Kb must equal 1.0 E -14
What results when you multipky Ka x Kb?
Kw ( the ion-product constant for water)
If Ka is known how can you calculate Kb for weak base
Ka x Kb = 1.0 E -14
PkA + pKB =
How do we know that almost all salts are strong electrolytes?
Th completely dissociate in water
What is Hydrolysis?
The reaction of ions with water and result in a change of pH
in general anions can be considered what?
the conj. base of an acid.
What ions do not undergo hydrolysis?
cations of alkali metals and earth metals and anions of strong acids
Spectator ions
What can the tendency of a substnce to show acidic or basic characteristics in water be correlated to?
Its Chemical structure
What does acid character require?
presence of highly polar H-X bond or when H-X bond is weak and when X- ion is stable
for oxyacids with the same central atom "y" when does acid strength increase?
as number of O atoms attatched to the central atom increases
What are Oxyacids?
Acids in which OH groups and any additional atoms are bound to a central atom
for oxyacids that have the same number of OH groups and same number of O atoms when does acid strength increase?
with increasing electronegativity of central atom
What occurs when y is a nonmetal?
bonds are covalent-does not readily lose OH-electroneg inc. acidity
What makes up the largest catagory of organic acids?
Carboxylic acids
The lewis concept of acids and bases emphasizes what?
the shared electron pair rather than the proton
a lewis acid is what?
a electron pair acceptor
a lewis base is what?
a electron pair donor
Why is the lewis concept more general than Bronsted lowry concept?
it can apply to cases which the acid is some substance other than H
What does the Lewis concept help to explain?
why many hydrated metal cations form acidic aq. solns
The acidity of cations generally increases as what increases and what decreases?
their charge increases and as the size of the metal ion decreases