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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a change in geno and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
bacteria phages
a virus that infects bacteria; see phage
double helix
the form of native DNA, referring to its 2 adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
semiconservative model
type of DNA replication where the replicated double helix consists of 1 old strand derived from the 1 old molecule and the 1 newly made strand
origins of replication
sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins
replication fork
a y shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing
DNA polymerases
an enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain
leading strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the temple strand in the mandatory 5' 3' direction
lagging strand
a discontinuously synthezised DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork
DNA ligase
a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain
an already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis
an enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer
an enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication fork
single strand binding protein
during DNA replication, molecules that line up along the unpaired DNA strands, holding them apart while the DNA strands serve as templates for the synthesis of complimentary strands of DNA
mismatch repair
the cellular process that uses special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides
a team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
nucleotid excision repair
the process of removig and then correctly replacing a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged straind as a guide
the protective structure at each end of a eucharyotic chromosome specifically the tandemily repetitive DNA at the end of the chromosome's DNA molecule
an enzyme that catalyzes the lengthning of telomeres. Enzyme includes a molecule of RNA that serves as a template for new telomere segments