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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define presbyopia.
Farsightedness associated with aging, resulting when the lens of the eye becomes less elastic.
Define myopia.
Define presbycusis.
Gradual loss of hearing, which accelerates after age 55, especially with regard to sounds at the upper frequencies.
Define basal metabolism.
Use of energy to maintain vital functions. Slowing of basal metabolism leads to loss of endurance in middle age.
Define vital capacity.
Amount of air that can be drawn in with a deep breath and expelled. Some loss experienced in middle age, along with bone density.
Define menopause.
Cessation of menstruation and of ability to bear children, typically around age 50.
Define perimenopause.
Period of several years during which a woman experiences physiological changes that bring on menopause; also called climacteric
Symptoms experienced during menopause can be influenced by what?
personal characteristics, past experiences, and cultural attitudes.
Name the changes in the female reproductive system during middle age:
Drop in estrogen/progesterone
hot flashes, vaginal dryness, urinary dysfunction
less intense arousal, less frequent/quicker orgasms
reproductive capacity ends.
Name the changes in the male reproductive system during middle age:
drop in testosterone
loss of psychological arousal, less frequent erections, slower orgasms, longer recovery between ejaculations, increased risk of erectile dysfunction
reproductive capacity continues--some decrease in fertility may occur
What are the leading causes of death during middle age?
cancer, heart disease, liver disease, and stroke. Diabetes also is a major cause of death.
What are two health concerns in middle age?
AIDS tends to be more severe in older people because of weakened immune functioning.
How is income related to health in middle age?
Low income is associated with poorer health, in part because of lack of insurance.
Why may African Americans be at a greater health risk?
combination of hereditary factors, lifestyle factors, poverty, and stress caused by discrimination.
What conditions do postmenopausal women become more susceptible to?
heart disease and bone loss leading to osteoporosis. Chances of developing breast cancer also increase with age, and routine mammography is recommended for women beginning at age 40.
What are the main reasons for hysterectomy in women by age 60?
About one in three U.S. women has a hysterectomy by age 60, usually because of uterine fibroids, abnormal uterine bleeding, or endometriosis. Many experts believe this procedure is overused.
What are the risks of Hormone Replacement Therapy that seem to be outweighing the benefits?
heart attack, stroke, gall bladder disease, breast cancer, blood clots
What are the causes of occupational stress?
work overload, interpersonal conflict, sexual harassment, a combination of high pressure and low control, and inability to "unwind." Continual stress may lead to burnout.
Define fluid intelligence.
Type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, which is applied to novel problems and is relatively independent of educational and cultural influences. Declines earlier than crystallized intelligence.
ex. discovering the pattern in a sequence of figures--involves perceiving relations, forming concepts, and drawing inferences.
Define crystallized intelligence.
ability to remember and use learned information--largely dependent on education and cultural background. holds own or even improves with age.

ex. finding a synonym for a word. vocabulary, general info, responses to social situations and dilemmas.
Define encapsulation.
In Hoyer's terminology, progressive dedication of information processing and fluid thinking to specific knowledge systems, making knowledge more readily accessible. Advances in expertise, or specialized knowledge have been attributed to encapsulation of fluid abilities within a person's chosen field. Expertise also depends on the social context.
What kinds of thought are hallmarks of middle age?
The ability to solve practical problems is strong, and may peak, at midlife.
Postformal thought seems especially useful in situations calling for integrative thinking(integrating logic with intuition/emotion, conflicting facts and ideas, new info with current knowledge).
Describe creativity in middle age.
Creative performance depends on personal attributes, environmental forces, cognitive abilities.
not strongly related to intelligence. However, according to Sternberg, the insightful, analytic, and practical aspects of intelligence play a part in creative performance.
An age-related decline appears in both psychometric tests of divergent thinking and actual creative output, but peak ages for output vary by occupation. Losses in productivity with age may be offset by gains in quality.
Define age-differentiated.
Life structure in which primary roles--learning, working, and leisure--are based on age; typical in industrialized societies.
Define age-integrated.
Life structure in which primary roles--learning, working, and leisure--are open to adults of all ages and can be interspersed throughout the life span.
Why is there currently a shift from age-differentiated to age-integrated?
in response to longer life and social change.
Define Ginzberg's stable career path.
stay with a single vocation and by midlife often reach positions of power and responsibility.--"workaholics"(work at a frenzied pace to reach financial security before they retire or they find it hard to relinquish authority) or "mellowed"(come to terms with their level of achievement, even if they have not gone as far as they'd hoped)
Define Ginzberg's shifting career path.
rather than settle for initial occupational choice, try to achieve a better match between what they can do, what they want and expect from their work, and what they are getting out of it.
Describe work and cognitive development.
Complex work may improve cognitive flexibility. Changes in the workplace may make work more meaningful and cognitively challenging for many people.
What is the value of education for mature learners?
Many adults go to college at a nontraditional age or participate in continuing education. Adults go to school chiefly to improve work-related skills and knowledge or to prepare for a change of career.
Mature adults have special educational needs and strengths.