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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a ketose?
A monosaccharide of sugar with the carbonyl group on the second carbon.
What is an aldose?
A monosaccharide of sugar with the carbonyl group on the first carbon.
What functional groups are found in all monosaccharides?
Hydroxyl groups are found in all monossaccharides along with a carbonyl on the first or second carbon.
When the OH group is on the left, which letter is assigned to it?
L
When the OH group is on the right, which letter is assigned to it?
D
What does d-galactose look like?
CH2OH - (CHOH)4 - aldehyde
What does d-fructose look like?
CH2OH - C=O - (CHOH)3 - CH2OH
What is the difference between d-glucose and d-galactose?
The OH on carbon 4 is on the left in galactose, and on the right in glucose.
When drawing the mirror image of a sugar, what flips?
The H and OH groups.
What is the term for when the -OH group of a sucrose is above the ring?
B-anomer
What is the term for when the -OH group of a sucrose is below the ring?
a-anomer
Draw the Haworth structure for B-D-mannose
(see page 554 in the text for the answer)

For those not using our book, find the structure online.
What's an example of a reducing sugar?
d-glucose

fructose
What does the reduction of a sugar produce?
The carbonyl group becoms a sugar alcohol called ALDITOLS.
How is the name changed for a sugar that has been reduced?
The ending of -ose changes to -itol
What is maltose a combination of?
Glucose + glucose
What is lactose a combination of?
Glucose + galactose
What is sucrose a combination of?
Glucose + fructose
What's an example of glucose?
Fruit juices
What's an example of galactose?
Lactose hydrolysis
What's an example of where to get fructose?
Fruit juices
Where can we get maltose?
Grains
Where can we get sucrose?
Sugar cane
Where can we get amylose and amylopectin?
Rice, wheat, grains
Where can we get glycogen?
Liver, muscles

(book page 567 says so)
Where can we get cellulose?
Plant fiber, celery
What's the name of the bond between two monosaccharides?
Glycosidic bond
What's the product of the reduction of d-glucose?
D-glucitol
What's the product of the oxidation of d-glucose?
d-gluconic acid