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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organization of brain tissue
1. Gray Matter
2. White Matter
Gray Matter
Mostly neuronal cell bodies & unmyelinated axons
White Matter
Myelinated axons of neurons
In the CNS a group of axons is called a?
In the CNS a group of neuronal cell bodies is called a?
What are the 3 meninges?
1. Dura
2. Arachnoid
3. Pia mater
Describe the dura
* outermost, toughest
* really 2 layers
In some places the 2 layers of the dura can separate to make?
What kind of sinuses can the dura make?
Venous sinuses which collect blood and return it to the heart.
The lower layers of the dura can meet & form?
Dura Septa
What is the falx cerebri an example of?
Dura Septa
What does the Arachnoid layer look like?
What do protein fibers do for the Arachnoid layer?
Give it elasticity
What is the Pia mater?
a delicated membrane that follows the contours of the brain
What is the subarachnoid space filled with?
Ventricles of the brain
1. Lateral Ventricles
2. Third ventricle
3. Fourth ventricle
Where are the Lateral Ventricles located?
one in each cerebral hemisphere.
Where is the third ventricle located?
Within the diencephalon
Where is the Fourth Ventricle located?
In the brainstem
What are the ventricles continuous with?
Each other and with the central canal of the spinal cord.
What is CSF made by?
Ependymal cells in ventricles
What does CSF do?
*It bathes, surrounds the brain & fills the ventricles
*provides buoyancy
*is replenished quickly
What are the 4 main parts of the brain?
1. Cerebrum
2. Diencephalon
3. Brainstem
4. Cerebellum
What is the Cerebrum?
Where higher cognitive functions occur.
(language, logic, musical ability)
What are the 2 hemispheres of the Cerebrum separated by?
Logitudinal fissure
Gyri (Gyrus)
Sulci (sulcus)
What are the 5 lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
1. Frontal
2. Parietal
3. Occipital
4. Temporal
5. Insula
What does the Primary motor cortex do?
Sends somatic motor commands
What does the Primary somatosensory cortex do?
Recieves info from body
ex: touch, pain, pressure
What does the Primary visual cortex do?
Receives visual info from eyes via thalamus
Cerebral nuclei
-Gray matter
-some somatic motor functions & emotional functions
What do Commissural tracts do?
Connect R and L hemispheres to each other
What do Association tracts do?
Connect different regions within one hemisphere
What do Projection tracts do?
Connect Cerebrum to lower brain areas or spinal cord
What are the 3 parts of the diencephalon?
1. Epithalamus
2. Thalamus
3. Hypothalamus
What does the Epithalamus include?
Pineal gland
What is the Thalamus?
Paired structure with many nuclei
What is the Thalamus a relay for?
* Sensory info coming in to cortex.
- including visual, auditory, somatosensory
What does the Hypothalamus do?
Makes high leveled decisions in the autonomic nervous system & endocrine system.
What are the 3 parts of the Brainstem?
1. Mesencephalon
2. Pons
3. Medulla Oblongata
Whatare the general functions of the brainstem?
- Many sensory and motor functions
What does the Mesencephalon do?
Posture & eye movement control
What is the pons responsible for?
What does the medulla oblongata do?
Breathing, heartrate, sneezing, and many other ANS functions.
Where is the Cerebellum located?
Posterior to brainstem & inferior to occipital lobe
What does the Cerebellum do?
Fine tunes somatic motor commands or primary motor cortex
How many Cranial Nerves are there?
12 cranial nerves
Cranial Nerve # 1?
What is function?
Sensory or Motor?
* Olfactory
-Function: Olfaction
Cranial Nerve #2
* Optic
Cranial Nerve #3
* Oculomotor
-Function: Eye movements
Cranial Nerve #4
* Trochlear
-Function: Eye movements
-Controls superior oblique muscle
Cranial Nerve #5
* Trigeminal (both)
-Sensory: Mouth & face
-Motor: Chewing
Cranial Nerve #6
* Abducens
-Function:Eye movements
Cranial Nerve #7
* Facial (both)
-Sensory: Taste
-Motor: Facial expression
Cranial Nerve #8
* Vestibulocochlear
-Function: Hearing
Cranial Nerve #9
* Glossopharyngeal (both)
-Sensory: Taste
-Motor: Salivation
Cranial Nerve #10
* Vagus (both)
-Sensory & Motor
-Mostly visceral
Cranial Nerve #11
* Accessory
-Function:Trapezius & sternocleidomastoid muscles
Cranial Nerve #12
* Hypoglossal
-Function:Tongue muscles