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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the religious revolutino which split the church in western Europe and created several new churches called?
the Reformation
How many independent states did Germany include?
which building did Pope Leo X continue rebuilding?
St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
Which enthusiastic monk did Pope Leo X charge with rasing funds in northern Germany?
Johann Tetzel
What are the punishment from punishment for sin did Tetzel ask people to buy?
Which person planned to be a lawyer and considered himself a terrible sinner?
Martin Luther
Where was Martin Luther born?
Eisenleben in Saxony
What did Luther cry out after almost being hit by lightning?
"Help, dear Saint Anne, I will become a monk!"
What did Luther's beliefs later become known as?
What did Luther create to challenge Tetzel? Where did he post this?
the 95 theses; on the church door at Wittenberg
Which pope declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him?
Pope Leo X
Which special meeting of rulers of the empire did the Holy Emperor Charles V summon Luther to in order to put the excommunication into effect? Where was this meeting held?
the Imperial Diet; Worms
Who protected Luther after he was banished and considered an outlaw at the Diet of Worms?
the Elector of Saxony, Fredrick the Wise
What did Luther do while under the protection of Fredrick the Wise/
translate the New Testament of the Bible into German from Hebrew and Greek
What did the followers of Luther and all later reformers become called?
Which church did Luther start?
the Lutheran church
What are the Lutheran clergy known as?
How many of the seven sacraments given to the priests of the Roman Catholic church did Luther allow his ministers? Which ones?
two; baptism and communion
Who sent armies against the Protestant princes in Germany?
Charles V
Which agreement reached a compromise between Charles V and the princes?
the Peace of Augsburg
What are the hundreds of new religious groups that did not form organized churches with clear-cut rules, authority, discipline, and membership called?
Which sect believed that infants should not receive baptism because they don't understand the importance of the ceremony?
the Anabaptists
What title was given to Henry VIII for his good job defending the church against Luther's ideas?
"Defender of the Faith
What wife did Henry VIII want a divorce from, causing England's break with Rome? Why did he want a divorce?
Catherine of Aragon; she didn't produce a male heir
What was the name of the daughter that Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon had?
Who did Henry VIII fall in love with that caused him to want to leave Catherine of Aragon/
Anne Boleyn
Who was Catherine of Aragon's nephew?
the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Which pope refused to except Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon?
Pope clement VII
Which church did Henry VIII create?
the Church of England aka the Anglican church
Which son did Henry VIII finally have as a heir?
Edward VI
Who was the vicar at the cathedral in Zurich who was greatly influenced by Erasmus and agreed with Luthern on almost everything?
Huldrych Zwingli
Which French Protestant carried on the work of the Reformation in Switzerland?
John Calvin
What did Calvin write that laid down exactly what the faithful ought to believe on every major question of religion?
the Institutes of the Christian Religion
What were Calvin's followers known as?
What was the belief introduced by Calvin that stated that God had decided, at the beginning of time, who would be saved and who would be damned called?
What were those who were predestined for salvation called?
"the elect"
Which city adopted Calvinism as their official religion?
What is the term for a government ruled by a clergy claiming God's authority, such as the one in Geneva?
a theocracy
What were the Calvinists in France known as?
Which decree issued by King Henry IV gave the Huguenots freedom of worship and some political rights?
the Edict of Nantes
Which form of Calvinism played a vital role in England and in the English colonies of north America?
What is the major reform effort by the Catholic Church called?
the Counter-Reformation
Which pope led the Counter-Reformation?
Pope Paul III
What did Pope Paul IV establish that forbade Catholics from reading certain books?
The Index of Prohibited Books
Which council abandoned the Index of Prohibited Books in 1966?
the Second Vatican Council
At which city did a council of church leaders meet to define official church doctrine? What was this council called?
the Italian city of Trent; the Council of Trent
What did the Council of Trent do in favor of the reformers?
ban the sale of indulgences and tighten discipline for the clergy
Which Spanish soldier who walked with a limp founded a new religious order? What was this new religious order called?
Ignatius of Loyola; the Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits
Which book written by Loyola describes his visino that answered his quesion about salvation?
Spiritual Exercises
What were the Jesuits like?
they had military discipline and were opposed to killing heretics
If lightening struck a house, butter wouldn't form, a pitcher of milk spilled, or a woman couldn't have a baby, who was blamed?
a demon
Which people, other than priests, were depended on for comfort in times of trouble?
so-called "wise" or "cunning" men or women
What were wise people often called?
"good witches"
How long did the enormous outburst of witch hunting in Europe last?
100 years
What was the ceremony in which two young men marched along impersonating a wife who beats a husband or a husband with a young wife called?
"rough music", "charivari", "abbeys of misrule"
Which people often led the burning of people's homes in protest?
the women
What is the term for single printed sheets that were used to spread information?
Which books were arranged like a calander and made predictions about the weather, prospects for growing crops, traditional superstitions, and advice about daily living? What modern books are these books the ancestors of?
almanacs; The Farmer's Almanac
What is the term for the measure of the quality of life of a people or country?
the standard of living
How many people lived in Europe after the tremendous population growth following the Black Death?
78 million people
What is the term for a rise in prices for goods?
What is the development in which people stopped believing in magic and started looking for explanatinos od day-to-day events called?
the "disenchantment"
What are the early scientists who used spells and magic formulas to try to change one substance into another- for example, lead into gold- called?
What is the new way of pursuing knowledge that no longer relied on magic called? What does this word mean?
science; knowledge
What is the transformation in thinking from magic to science called?
the Scientific Revolution
What is the method of inquiry that includes carefully conducted experiments and mathematical calculations to verify the results of the experiments called?
the scientific method
Which scientist introduced the theory that the earth was the center of the universe and that the other planets and the sun move around it/
Which theory stated that everything revolved around the earth?
the geocentric theory
Which theory states that everything revolves around the sun?
the heliocentric theory
Which Polish scientist was conviced that the heliocentic theory best explained all the known facts of astronomy of his time?
Nicolaus Copernicus
In which book did Copernicus describe his conclusions on the heliocentric theory?
On The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
Which brilliant mathematician used mathematics to test the heliocentric theory of Copernicus?
Johannes Kepler
How many times did Kepler calculate his problem before he discovered the error?
What was the error in Kepler's original heliocentric proof?
he stated that the orbits of other planets were perfect circles, although they really are ovals called ellipses
What did Galileo supposed do before anyone else?
use a telescope
What discovery of Galileo helped disprove the geocentric theory?
the discovery that the moons of Jupiter revolve around the planet, showing that not every heavenly body revolves around the earth
In which book did Galileo publish his findings?
the Dialogue on the Two Great Systems of the World
Did Galileo agree to the order of the Inquisition for him to renounce his belief that the earth moves around the sun?
What did Galileo supposedly say as he left the Inquisition?
"Yes it does move."
What other discovery in the subject of physics did Galileo make?
the discovery that heavier objects and lighter objects fall at the same speed, considering there's no air resistance
Which Flemish scientist studied anatomy and refused to accept the descriptions of human muscles and tissues written by Galen?
Andreas Vesalius
Which landmark work in the history of medicine did Vesalius publish?
On the Fabric of the Human Body
Which English physician described the circulation of the blood through veins and arteries, the working of the heart, and the functino of blood vessels?
William Harvey
What group did Galileo belong to?
the Accademia dei Lincei
To whom did King Charles II grant a charter to?
the Royal Society in London
What did Louis XIV establish?
the French Academy of Sciences
Which French philosopher and scientist decided to become a soldier to see the world around him?
Rene Descartes
Which book did Descartes write which argued that everything had to be proven?
the Discourse on Method
What was Descartes' first basic truth?
"I think, therefore I am."
Which English philosopher was Descartes' contemporary?
Francis Bacon
What did Bacon believe/
That science would help humanity conquer nature and end all suffering
Which French philosopher and scientist opposed Bacon's ideas because they ignored the power of faith and the need to rely on God?
Blaise Pascal
Which English mathematician and philosopher was considered the supreme example ofthe new reasoning and powers of science?
Isaac Newton
What book did Newton publish?
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
What did Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy do?
combine and relate the contributions of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
What did the English poet Alexander Pope say to describe Newton's impact?
"Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said, 'Let Newton be,' and all was light."
which German philosopher and mathematician worked with Newton to develop a branch of mathematics that studies continuously changing quantaties? What is this branch called?
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz; calculus
Which Dutch scientist used a microscope to discover bacteria?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Which English scientist was the first person to identify cells in living matter?
Robert Hooke
What did Hooke examine and find? What did he call what he found and why?
cork, small rectangular rooms; cells, because they looked like the cells in which bees store honey
Which English scientist is known as the founder of modern chemistry?
Robert Boyle
Which English chemist discovered the element later called oxygen?
Joseph Priestley
Which French scientist named oxygen and showed that fire was not an elemtn, but the result of the rapid combinatino of oxygen?
Antoine Lavoisier
What else did Lavoisier prove?
that matter is indestructible
What is Lavoisier's discovery known as?
the law of conservation of matter
What did many europeans speak of their changing times as?
an "Age of Enlightenment"