• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/82

Click to flip

82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All the living things in an environment.
biotic
A group of organisms similar enough at the genetic level to mate and produce viable offspring.
species
A community of populations and the abiotic factors in their environment.
ecosystem
All the nonliving things in an environment.
abiotic
A struggle between organisms for the same limited resource.
competition
A group of many different populations that live in the same area.
community
An area characterized by the same types of ecosystems.
biome
A group within a species that shares the same habitat at the same time.
population
The study of relationships between organisms and their environment.
ecology
An organisms' lifestyle, taking into account aspects such as habit, nutrition, foraging, and territory.
niche
What factor has to be in common in a group of ecosystems to deem it a biome?
climate
An organism that consumes other organisms for nutrition is known as a ___________ or a ______________.
consumer; heterotrophs
The __________ _________ of an animal is determined by where the animal obtains its nutrition from.
tropic level
The set of all the biomes on Earth.
biosphere
This trophic level consumes only producers.
primary consumer
This trophic level of organisms makes their own food for nutrition.
producers
Organisms that consume primary consumers.
secondary consumers
Consumers that decompose organisms.
decomposers
Another name for producers is ______________.
autotrophs
Organisms that consume secondary consumers.
tertiary consumers
What are two adaptations of herbivores to eat and digest vegetable material?
1 - Flattened teeth (good for chewing)
2 - Long intestines (helps digest cellulose)
What percent of energy is passed up from one trophic level to the next?
10%
What are the three types of ecological pyramids?
1 - Energy
2 - Biomass
3 - Population Size
Give 4 explanations for where the 90% energy that is not passed up the trophic levels goes.
1 - Not all parts of an organism is available as energy. (ex. bones, cellulose)
2 - It takes energy to get energy.
3 - You cannot get previously used energy, only the energy stored in the organism at that time.
4 - Something must survive to reproduce.
What are two adaptations of carnivores to eat and digest animal flesh?
1 - Sharp teeth
2 - A keen sense of sight and/or smell.
What animal can digest bones?
hyenas
What are saprophytes?
decomposers
Organisms that consume both plants and animals are known as ________________.
omnivores
When organisms of two different species live together in some way, it is known as ____________.
symbiosis
A symbiotic relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor hurt.
commensalism
What type of teeth do omnivores have?
Both sharp, canine teeth and flat teeth.
A symbiotic relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits and the other is hurt.
parasitism
Symbiosis shows _______________ in action!
coevolution
The first species to inhabit an area after a disturbance is known as the ____________ _______________.
pioneer species
A symbiotic relationship between two organisms where both organisms benefit.
mutualism
What percent of the Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen?
78%
A home in the roots of certain plants for nitrogen-fixing bacteria is known as a ___________.
nodule
What is nitrogen used to make that makes nitrogen so important to the survival of all organisms?
proteins/amino acids
The concept of changing atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates in soil is known as ______________ ________________.
nitrogen fixation
What type of plants have root nodules? Give one example.
legumes; beans, peas, peanuts, clovers
What is the chemical notation for atmospheric nitrogen/nitrogen gas?
N(sub 2)
__________ in the soil are absorbed by plants to make proteins.
nitrates
What is the chemical formula for nitrates?
NO(sub 3)
What is so special about bacteria living in root nodules?
They can facilitate the process of nitrogen fixation.
What is another, practical name for nitrates?
fertilizer
Why is atmospheric nitrogen unusable to most organisms?
N(sub 2) means that there is a triple bond between two nitrogen particles, and it takes a lot of ATP to break a triple bond.
Other than nitrogen-fixing bacteria, what is another way atmospheric nitrogen can be changed into nitrates?
lightning
Plants absorb __________ and ____________.
nitrates and ammonia

(NO(sub 3) and NH(sub 4)+
All the types of nitrogen involved in the nitrogen cycle are ______, ______, ______, and _______ (the most important one).
N(sub 2); NO(sub 3); NH(sub 4)+; AA (amino acids)
After plants convert the NO(sub 3) to proteins/amino acids, what happens to the proteins?
They move up the food chain.
What two things do decomposers release?
NO(sub 3) and NH(sub 4)+

A.K.A. - Nitrates and ammonia
What do denitrifying bacteria create?
nitrogen gas
The sequential replacement of populations in an ecosystem is known as _________________.
succession
Why do animals excrete nitrogenous wastes?
If there was too much nitrogenous wastes in an animal, it would poison the blood.
The colonization of "new" areas created by the actions of volcanoes is known as ___________ ___________.
primary succession
The stable, unchanging community that marks the end of succession is known as the _________ _______________.
climax community
__________ ____________ is the changes that happen in communities after the ecosystem has been disrupted by natural disasters or human actions.
secondary succession
What two main limiting factors determine an areas biome?
precipitation and temperature
Another name for the climax community of an area is the ___________.
biome
Permanently frozen subsoil, ranging from a few meters to 1500 meters deep.
permafrost
What are some possible causes of secondary succession?
1 - A big fire
2 - Bulldozing on the area
3 - Farmers abandoning their fields
4 - Any type of natural disaster (hurricanes, tornadoes, etc.)
This biome is located in the north. It's average temperature is -26 degrees Celsius to 4 degrees Celsius. There is an annual precipitation of 0 cm to 30 cm.
tundra
This biome has an average temperature of 25 degrees Celsius to 27 degrees Celsius. Its annual precipitation ranges anywhere from 200 cm to 400 cm.
tropical rain forest
Any tree that looses its leaves at the end of the growing season is known as a _______________ tree.
deciduous
The dominant vegetation in this biome is lichen, mosses, and short grasses. Also, permafrost is found in this biome.
tundra
This biome has the highest humidity and has plants such as shrubs and cacti.
desert
What substance can hold heat very well?
water
Some common animals in this biome are deer, wolves, bear, small mammals, and birds.
temperate deciduous forest
The biggest biome in the world is the _______________ biome.
grassland
Another name for the Taiga biome is the _________ _______________ ___________.
Northern Coniferous Forest.
Which biome has the highest biodiversity?
tropical rain forst
The common animals in this biome include lemmings, Arctic foxes, Arctic hares, snowy owls, and reindeer.
tundra
This biome has an average temperature of 0 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees Celsius. The annual precipitation is 25 cm to 75 cm.
grassland
The form of carbon in the atmosphere is known as ___________.
carbon dioxide (CO(sub 2))
Although not many animals are found in this biome, some common ones are mountain lions, foxes, reptiles, and other animals well adapted to heat and water loss.
desert
Algae take in what kind of carbon dioxide?
dissolved carbon dioxide
Plants take carbon dioxide and turn it into _________________.
glucose (C(sub 6)H(sub 12)O(sub 6))
This biome is characterized by tall, broad leaved trees, vines, and vegetation that occurs in layers.
tropical rain forest
Both seashells and eggshells are made up of this form of carbon.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO(sub 3))
How is glucose turned back into carbon dioxide in the carbon cycle?
The respiration of all organisms turns glucose back into carbon dioxide.
The average temperature for this biome is 6 degrees Celsius to 28 degrees Celsius. The annal precipitation ranges from 75 cm to 125 cm.
temperate deciduous forest
Some common insects and animals in this biome include sloths, monkeys, butterflies, parrots, snakes, and jaguars.
tropical rain forest