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31 Cards in this Set

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What is *Socialization*?
The process by which children learn the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations required of them by their society or culture.
*Maturation* is:
The sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behavior and physical characteristics.
Prenatal Development is divided into *what* sections:
1. The Germinal, 2. Embryonic, 3. Fetal
The *Germinal Stage* begins:
At conception, the sperm uniting with the egg; the fertilized single-cell egg is called a ZYGOTE.
The *embryonic stage* begins:
and lasting until the eighth week of conception at which point the embryo is only 1 1/2 inches in length.
The *Fetal Stage* begins:
After 8 weeks, the Fetus further develops the organs and systems that existed in rudimentary form in the embryonic stage.
What is * Contact Comfort*?
In primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact; it is the basis of an infants first attachment.
What is *Separation Anxiety*?
The distress that most children develop, at about 6 - 8 months of age, when their primary care-givers temporarily leave them with strangers.
What is *Separation Anxiety*?
The distress that most children develop, at about 6 - 8 months of age, when their primary care-givers temporarily leave them with strangers.
Waht is *telegraphic speech*?
A child's first word combinations, which omit unnecessary words.
What is *Assimilation*?
In Piaget's's theory, the process of absorbing new information into existing cognitive structures.
What is *Accomodation*?
In Piaget's theory, the process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new information.
What is *Object Permanence*?
The understanding, which develops throughout the first year, that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see or touch it.
In Piaget's theory, *operations* are:
mental actions that are cognitively reversible.
In Piaget's theory, *operations* are:
mental actions that are cognitively reversible.
What is *Egocentric Thinking*?
Seeing the world from only your own point of view; the inability to take another person's perspective.
What is *Conservation*?
The understanding that the physical properties of objects - such as the number of items in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glass - can remain the same even when their form or appearance changes.
What is *Theory of Mind*?
A system of beliefs about the way one's own mind and the minds of others work, and how cognitions and feelings effect behavior.
What is *Power Assertion*?
A method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to correct the child's misbehavior.
What is *Induction*?
A method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child's own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the child's misbehavior.
What is *Gender Identity*?
The fundamental sense of being male or female; it is independent of whether the person conforms to the social and cultural rules of gender.
What is *Gender Typing*
The process by which children learn the abilities, interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture.
What is *Gender Schema*?
A cognitive schema (mental network) of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors, and expectations about what it means to be male or female.
*Puberty* is?
The age at which a person becomes capable of sexual reproduction.
What is *Menarche [men-ARR-kee]*?
The onset of menstruation.
What is *Ethnic Identity*?
The process by which members of minority groups come to identify with and fell part of the mainstream culture.
What is *Ethnic Identity*?
The process by which members of minority groups come to identify with and fell part of the mainstream culture.
What is *Ethnic Identity*?
The process by which members of minority groups come to identify with and fell part of the mainstream culture.
What is *Menopause*?
The cessation of menstruation and of the production of ova; it is usually a gradual process lasting up to several years.
What is *Fluid Intelligience*
The capacity for deductive reasoning and the ability to use new information to solve problems; it is relatively independent of education and tends to decline in old age.
What is *Crystallized Intelligience*?
Cognitive skills and specific knowledge of information acquired over a lifetime; it is heavily dependent on education and tends to remain stable over the lifetime.