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27 Cards in this Set

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Code of conduct put forward by a society/group, or accepted by an individual for their own behaviour

Morality as a form of Cognition

1) Input - Situation

2) Information Processing - Moral Reasoning

3) Output - Moral Judgement

Moral Psychology

Situation > Moral Reasoning > Moral Judgement

Arrival of Moral Judgements: Empiricist View

Moral Judgements are the results of learning and experience

Arrival of Moral Judgements: Rationalist View

Judgements are the results of abstract reasoning and reflection

morality comes in stages - not innate moral rules, but with an innate capacity to develop

children figure out through themselves rather than exp.

Piaget & Naive Physics

Children not born with innate understanding of conservation

Kohlberg: Morality is developmental

morality is developed in stages proceeds to more advanced stages

Moral Dilemma

Situations where different moral considerations must be weighted in order to determine the right thing to do

Kohlberg Experience

participants and moral dilemmas

- record and code their responses particularly their reasons for answering the way they did

Famous Heinz Dilemma

Kohlberg: Level 1 Pre-conventional Morality

< 9 years old

Stage 1: Obedience & Punishment

eg. shouldn't lie because you will get in trouble

Stage 2: Individualism and exchange

eg. shouldn't lie unless an adult tells you it's ok

Kohlberg: Level 2 Conventional Morality

Adolescents & Adults

Stage 3: Interpersonal Relationships

eg. shouldn't lie because t makes you look bad

Stage 4: Maintaining social order

eg. emphasis on honesty, respecting societal rules, and laws

Kohlberg: Level 3 Post-Conventional Morality

Stage 5: Social Contract & Individual Rights

eg. Sometimes societal rules go against the interests of an individual

Stage 6: Universal Principles

eg. justice and fairness must be upheld for everyone, regardless of what the law says

Gilligan: Gender-Biased Sampling

studied moral reasoning in children and college students and found that women appeared to be deficient compared to men

not advance past third stage

tendency to not emphaise justice and often emphasized interpersonal relationships


Children do not treat all rules the same way, thought they can't always articulate this

Conventional vs. Moral Domains

understand how we distinguish between what is morally right or wrong vs. what is conventionally right/wrong


Gave children scenarios - asked for judgements

3 year old identify hitting each other is wrong

flexible when comes to conventions

harm is a universal principal

Distinction between conventional rules and moral rules

Moral Dumbfounding Experiment

People presented with scenarios that seem to call for moral condemnation, but without a clear reason

Haidt's Social Intuitionist Model

rational model ignores the role of intuition and emotion in moral judgement

- shaped by natural selection and cultural forces

Deontological Judgements (2)

1) Emphasize fairness, justice, & Universality

Action is right = rule on which it is based could be universally adopted

2) Consequentialist / Utilitarian Judgements:

action is right = will lead to an overal greater amount of happiness

Trolley Problem - Switch Scenario

Train heading down the track, you can save 5 people, or kill a child & grandfather

- Morally acceptable to kill 2 instead of 5?

Trolly Problem: Footbridge Scenario

Train heading down the track, you can push the large man over to save the 5 people on the tracks


the switch scenario likely to engage in brain regions linked with controlled cognition

footbridge scenario likely to engage brain regions associated with emotion

Moral Foundation Theory: 6 Core Themes

1) Care / Harm

2) Liberty / Oppression

3) Authority / Subversion

4) Fairness / Cheating

5) Loyalty / Betrayal

6) Sanctity / Degradation

Political Preferences & Ideologies: Right-wing vs. Left-wing

Right-wing: tend to have 6 moral foundations fairly equal

Left-wing: tend to have C/H, L/O, more strongly

Frans de Waal & Animal Morality

Non-human exhibits the following behaviour:



Fairness & Reciprocity