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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A Tablet or spray commonly prescribed to cardiac patients; acts to dilate blood vessels to increase oxygen flow to the myocardium.
Pain associated with decrease blood flow to the heart muscle.
A lack of oxygen to the myocardium
Unstable Angina?
A change in the pattern of stable angina, which may signify an impending myocardial infarction.
Myocardial infarction?
The death of heart muscle caused by a lack of oxygen.
Identify six risk factors for cardiac disease?
Cigarette smoking-doubles risk
Family history
Men, birth control/postmenopausal women, then women
Diabetes mellitus
Elevated blood cholesterol levels
Sedentary life style
List and differentiate between the symptoms of angina and myocardial infaraction?
In MI:
Pain last longer than 15 minutes
Respiratory distris my be more severe
Skin cold and clammy
Pulse my be rapid or slow, Irregular
Hypotension and signs of shock
Denial of symptom
Three complications of MI?
Cardiac Arrest
Congestive heart failure
Cardiogenic shock
Cardiogenic Shock?
Cardiac failure whereby the heart cannot sufficiently pump blood to the rest of the circulatory system.
Congestive Heart Failure?
An inability of the heart to pump blood caused by heart muscle damage.
Describe common featrues of cardiogenic shock?
Severe MI
Severe Heart Failure
Cardiac Valve muscle rupture
Trauma causing excessive pressure on the heart

Assessment -
Abnormal mental status
Collapse of peripheral veins
Cold, clammy skin
Rapid, shallow respirations
Rapid, thready pulse
lower O2 sat
Pulmonary Edema?
An excessive backup of fluid in the lungs
List five symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure?
Short of breath
Restlessness, anxiety
Distended Neck veins
Swollen edematous legs
Weakness, fatigue
Chest pain
Increased Systolic blood pressure
Compare the signs and symptoms of right-sided and left-sided congestive heart failure?
Left Side - Shortness of breath
Pink Frothy sputum
Audible Abnormal Breath sounds, rales/wheezes

Right side -
Swelling, extremities and lower back
Abdominal swelling
Swelling of the liver and spleen
Distention of the neck veins
A dilation of a portion of blood vessel that may cause a weakness or tear of the vessel wall.
Pulmonary Embolism?
A blockage in a pulmonary artery' most often caused by a blood clot in the leg that breaks away, travels through the veins, and becomes lodged in the lungs.
Outline three risk factors for acute pulmonary embolism and enumerate that most common clinical signs and symptoms?
Sedentary life style
Birth Control
Long bone fracture
Blood disease

Sudden, unexplained chest pain
Respiratory distress/short of breath
Wheezing/coughing up blood
Hypertensive Crisis?
A sudden increase in blood pressure that leads to problems with the nervous system, the kidneys, or the heart.
Identify 6 symptoms of hypertensive crisis?
Severe headache or dizziness
Decreased level of responsiveness
Visual disturbances blurred or double vision.
Nausea or vomiting
Chest pain, shortness of breath
Nosebleed - elevated blood pressure
Is the sensation of pounding or racing of the heart.
Is the transient state of unresponsiveness due to inadequate perfusion of the breain from which the patient has recovered.
List 5 causes of Syncope?
Cardiac dysrhythmias
Other types of heart disease,
Nervous system disorders,
Anxiety and Thyroid disease
Describe the cardiac conduction system?
SA node
AV node
Bundle of His
Purkinje's Fibers
An abnormal heart rhythm
The absensce of any electrical activity in the heart.
An electrical shock delivered to the heart in order to restore an effective rhythm.
List the rationale for early defibrillation and describe the most common electrical disturbance resulting in cardiac arrest.
The earlier defibrillation, the faster the AED can resolve VF or V-Tech. THe more likely it will reverse the bad rytham
Automated external defibrillatores (AEDs)
Two types of AEDs

Fully automatic defibrillators, analyze cardiac rhythm, decide whether or not to shock and then automatically deliver a shock.

Semiautomatic defibrillators - analyze the rhythm and decide if shock is advised. Then EMT-I must press button.
List the indications for Automated external defibrillation.
If it was a witness arrest and you have two people available, one starts CPR and the other sets up the AED. No pulse and no Breath sounds.
Standard placement?
Calls for one defibrillator paddle to be placed to the right of the upper sternum. just below the right clavicle, the other just to the left of the nipple in the midaxillary line.
Anterior-posterior placement?
One paddle is positioned anteriorly, just to eh left of the sternal border, and the other positioned behind the heart.