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44 Cards in this Set

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Cardinal Traits
personality traits with the most influence Mandela/justice; M. Teresa/service; Hitler/oppressive power
Central Traits
capture aspects of the individual but not as influential as Cardinal traits.
(honest or warm)
Secondary Traits
have minimal influence on one’s personality. (frequntly change jobs
171 adjectives –surface traits – those adjectives that “cluster” together create 16 variables- personality variables – these he called source traits.
Hans and Sybil Eysenck
3 bipolar dimensions to personality
outgoing/active - - shy/reserved/careful
Neuroticism-emotional stability
worry/guilt – even tempered/stable
aggressive/egocentric –considerate/obedient
Big 5 Characteristics
predict other personal attributes Fairly well
apply to other cultures?
Reasonably well
How heritable are these traits
Quite heritable
How stable are these traits?
Quite stable
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests
High sensitivity to reinforcement/high activity levels in infants
High sensitivity to punishment – controlled by the amygdala
Low sensitivity to punishment; high optimal level of arousal- difficulty with inhibition.
Anxious/Fearful – sensitive to punishment – perhaps controlled by the amygdala
Social Cognitive Approaches
Personality is a learned process
Stronger role of the environment
Expectancies and Observational Learning
Locus of Control: Julian Rotter
our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless
External Locus of Control
you control
Internal Locus of Control
environment controls
Learned Helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
unconscious psychic energy
strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
pleasure principle
demanding immediate gratification
mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality
It is the internal representative of the values of parents and society.
(devided into conscience and ego idea)
Ego ideal
which promotes idealistic and perfectionist goals
morally right and wrong
Inhibiting the id impulses
persuade the ego to attend to moral rather than realistic goals.
Defense Mechanisms
These are mental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with the superego, and include:
the process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos – including gender identity
a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
The ego’s fear of losing the battle between the superego and the id –when this occurs the ego protects itself by using various defense mechanism.
Psychosexual stages
seeking pleasure from specific parts of the body called erogenous zones
arrested development of a stage
Oral stage
gratification of the hunger drive
• Anal stage
the desire to poop
• Phallic stage
playing with yourself, and being attracted to your parents, you begin to like your same sex parent in identification
• Latency period
6 to puburty, dormnt exual feelings
• Genital stage
attracted to young ones
Alfred Adler
importance of childhood social tension – role of the inferiority complex
Karen Horney
sought to balance Freud’s masculine biases – helplessness signals a desire for love and security.
Carl Jung
emphasized the unconscious – what he comes to term the collective unconscious
Abraham Maslow
Behavior is motivated by a hierarchy of needs
the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved
beleived in conditions of worth
Conditions of worth
the conditions that others place upon us in order to receive their positive regard
Unconditional positive regard
the unconditional love and acceptance of an individual by another person