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30 Cards in this Set

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What is the psychodynamic appoach?
Developed by Frued, emphasizes the roles of unconscious mental processes in determining thoughts, feelings, and behavior.

ex. Freud introduced the idea that psychological activity plays a major role in behavior, mental processes, and personality. Psych refers to mental, and dynamic pertains to energy, motion, and forcefulness. Psychological factors have energy and paly a forceful role in the determination of personality, behavior, and mental processes.
What is the id and give and example of it?
One of the structures of personality, contains the basic insticts, desires and impulses with which people are born. It operates on the pleasure principle. Eros is the instinct for pleasure and sex. Thanatos is the death instinct, which can motivate aggressive and destructive behavior. The id seeks immediate gratification, regardless of societies rules of rights and feelings of others.

ex. Freud might sy that an infant cries whenever hungry, wet, bored, or frustrated because the infant's id wants instant fulfillment of every wish.
What is ego and an example of it?
It evolves from the id and attempt to satisfy the id's demands without breaking societies rules. The ego operates according to the reality principle.

ex. Suppose Thanotos (part of the id) creates a desire to cut people with knives. The ego would consider societies rules and laws about this type of activity, which say that cutting other people is wrong. But a person can become a surgeon and cut people on a daily basis. Being a physician who cuts people does not violate society's rules and may symbolically satisfy the ids demands.
What is the superego and an exampl of it?
It is formed from internalized values and dictates what people should do (the ego ideal) and what people should not do (the conscience). The superego can be thought of as operating on the morality principle.

ex. Suppose you are a small child in a candy store. Your "id" is screaming for candy. The conscience (part of the superego) is saying " You know it is wrong to steal candy." The ego decides that the best way to handle this dilemma is for you to go home and ask your mother for your allowance. Then you can go back and buy the candy, satisfying both the id and the superego.
What is the defense Mechanism and an example of it?
Are unconcious psychological and behavioral tactics that help protect a person from anxiety by preventing conscious awareness of unacceptable id impulses and other unconcious material.

ex. Jansen has a new baby brother whom he dislikes for taking away his parents' attention. Jansen would be very upset about his intense dislike of his sibling if he were consciously aware of it; therefore his ego employs a defense mechanism, reaction formation, to push the negative feelings into the unconcious. Now Jansen is overly atentive and affectionate with his brother.
What are psychological stages?
are part of Freud's psychodynamic theory of personality. Each stage is distinguished by the part of the body from which a person derives dominate pleasure. The five stages are, in their respective order, oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital. Failure to resolve the problems that occur during the oral, anal, or phallic stages can lead to fixation.
What is the oral stage and an example of it?
occurs during the first year of life, when the child derives pleasure from the mouth. If a child is weaned too early or too late, problems that can lead to fixation may arise.

ex. Bill was weaned too early, thus depriving him of pleasure during the oral stage of personality developement. As an adult, he talks quite a bit, is a heavy smoker, and loves to eat.
What is the anal stage and an example of it?
Occurs during the second year of life, when pleasure is derived from the anal area. If toilet training is too demanding or has begun too early or too late, problems that can lead to fixation may arise.

ex: Art was toilet trained at a very young age and is fixated at the anal stage. As an adult, he is very neat, orderly, and extremely organized.
What is the phallic stage and an example of it?
occurs from three to five years of age, when pleasure is derived from the genital area. During this stage boys experience the oedipus complex, and girls experience the electra complex. A fixation at the phallic stage could lead to problems with authority or difficulties maintaining love relationships.

ex. Eve hasn't had a long term romantic relationship because she finds fault with each person she dates. Although Eve doesn't realixe it, she wants people to match her unreasonably high expectations and becomes irritated when they don't.
What are Allport's central traits.
Allport believed that the set of labels chosen to describe a particular person reflects that person' central traits, those that are usually apparent to others and that organize and control behavior in amny different situations. Central traits are roughly equivalent to the descriptive terms used in letters of recommendation (reliable or distractable for example) that are meant to convey what can be expected from a person most of the time.
What are allport's secondary traits?
Allport also believed that people have secondary traits those that are more specific to certain situations and control far less behavior. "Dislikes crowd" is an example.
What is Eysenck's biological trait theory?
He believed that most people's traits could be described in two main demensions introversion-extroversion and emotionality-stability.
Introversion-extraversion: Extraverts are sociable and outgoing, enjoy parties and other group activities, take risks, and love excitement and change. Introverts tend to be quiet, thoughtful, and reserved, enjoting solitary pursuits and avioding excitement and social envolvement.

Emotionality-stability: People at one extreme of the emotionality-stability dimension display such characteristics as moodiness, restlessness, worry, anxiety, and other negative emotions. Those at the opposite extreme are calm, even-tempered, relaxed, and emotionally stable.
What is the big five; OCEAN?
The five factor model of personality is openness to experience, conscientiousness,
extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.

Openness to experience: Artistic, curious, imaginative, insightful, original, wide interests, unusual thought proceses, intellectual interests.

conscientiousnes: Efficient, organized, planful, reliable, thorough, dependable, ethical, productive.

Extraversion: Appreciative, forgiving, generous, kind, trusting, concritical, warm, compassionate, considerate, straightforward.

Neuroticism: Anxious, self pitying, tense, emotionally unstable, impulsive, vulnerable, touchy and worrying.
What is the behavioral approach system created by Jeffery Gray called the appraoch inhibition theory?
is made up of brain regions that affect people's sensitivity to rewards and their motivation to seek those rewards. The BAS is called the go system because it is responsible for how impulsive or uninhibited a person is.

People with an active BAS tend to experience positive emotions .
What the behavioral inhibition system?
Involves brain regions that affect sensitivity to poetentioal punishment and the motivation to aviod being punished. Th BIS IS A STOP SYSTEM THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HOW FEARFUL OR INHIBITED A PERSON IT.

People with an active BIS to to experience negative emotions.

Gray sees extroverts as having an sensative reward system, and a insensitive punishment system BIS. Introvert are just the opposite, they are relatively insensitive to rewards but highly sensitive to punishment.
What is the social cognitve approach and give and example of it?
views personality as the array of behaviors that a person aquires through learning. Also important are the roles of learned thought patterns and the influence of social situations.

ex. Devorah explains that he friend has learned to be obnoxious at parties. Devorah believes they could shape her friends behavior to be less obnoxious by rewarding her for more appropriate behavior.
What was the Roger's self theory?
Carl Rogers emphasized hte actualizing tendency which he described as a innate inclination toward growth and fulfillment that motivates all human behavior and is expressed in a unique way by each indiviual .

ex. Adam has wanted to be a nurse ever since kindergarten, when his younger sister was sick. In his nursing classes, Adam feels a since of accomplishment and of motivation to learn more.
What is Rogers theory of self-concept and an example of it?
is the way one thinks about oneself. It is influenced by self-actualizing tendencies and other evaluations.

ex. Lucy loves to bake in her play oven. Her whole family raves about how tasty her creations are, although lucy's apple pie was a little chewy. Now Lucy thinks that she's a fine bakerand a nice perrson for treating her family to new desserts every day.
What is Roger's theory of
congruence and an example of it?
Evaluations by parents, teachers and others begin to affect children's self evaluations. When evaluations are in agreement with a child's own self evaluations, the child reacts in a way that matches , or is congruent with self experience. The child not only experiences positive regard but also evaluates the self as good for having earned approval.
What is positive regard?
Roger's saw personality developement beginning early, as children learn to need other people's approval.
What are conditions of worth and an example of it?
Are the beliefs that a person's worth depends on displaying the right attitudes, beahviors, and values. These conditions are created whenever people, instead of their behaviors, are evaluated.

Ex. Bruce sat on he desk folding all the papers into littles squares, thinking that his mom would think it looked very neat. no! Bad boy! Get down from there this instant! Bruce's mom yells.
What is Maslow's deficiency orientation?
Occurs when people ae preoccupied with meeting needs for what they do not have. In other words people focus on what is missing from their lives instead of what they have.

ex. Jacqueline is the chief executive officer of a major corporation. She has a beautiful house, a membership in the right country club, and alarge salery. However instead of being satisfied, Jacqueline is constantly worrying about what she does not have enough money to buy.
What is Maslow's growth orientation and an example of it?
Occurs when people focus on deriving satisfaction from what they have.

ex. Pedro is a developemental psychologist. He does not get paid as much as some people, but he loves his research. He also has a supportive family and a few very close friends. Pedro concentrates most of his effort on working and on enjoying his family to the fullest. He does not worry about what he cannot have. Instead he derives a great deal of pleasure- indeed, joy- from what he does have.
What are objective tests and an example?
one type of personality test, are paper-and-pencil tests containing clear, specific questions, statements, or concepts to which a person writes responses.

ex. The multiple choice tests that you take in you classes are called objective tests because they can be graded objectively. Your score on a objective test can be compared mathematically with other student's scores.

remember: Objective tests area scored objectively. The scorer has a key that shows how to assign scores, rather than each scorer choosin a way of interpreting responses.
What are projective tests and an example of it?
Are composed of unstructured stimuli that can be perceived and responded to in many ways. People who use these kind of tests assume that responses will reflect aspects of personality. It is relatively difficult to tranform these tests responses into numerical scores.

ex. The TAT is a projective test that involves showing people pictures and asking them to tell a story about each picture.
What are conditions of worth and an example of it?
Are the beliefs that a person's worth depends on displaying the right attitudes, beahviors, and values. These conditions are created whenever people, instead of their behaviors, are evaluated.

Ex. Bruce sat on he desk folding all the papers into littles squares, thinking that his mom would think it looked very neat. no! Bad boy! Get down from there this instant! Bruce's mom yells.
What is Maslow's deficiency orientation?
Occurs when people ae preoccupied with meeting needs for what they do not have. In other words people focus on what is missing from their lives instead of what they have.

ex. Jacqueline is the chief executive officer of a major corporation. She has a beautiful house, a membership in the right country club, and alarge salery. However instead of being satisfied, Jacqueline is constantly worrying about what she does not have enough money to buy.
What is Maslow's growth orientation and an example of it?
Occurs when people focus on deriving satisfaction from what they have.

ex. Pedro is a developemental psychologist. He does not get paid as much as some people, but he loves his research. He also has a supportive family and a few very close friends. Pedro concentrates most of his effort on working and on enjoying his family to the fullest. He does not worry about what he cannot have. Instead he derives a great deal of pleasure- indeed, joy- from what he does have.
What are objective tests and an example?
one type of personality test, are paper-and-pencil tests containing clear, specific questions, statements, or concepts to which a person writes responses.

ex. The multiple choice tests that you take in you classes are called objective tests because they can be graded objectively. Your score on a objective test can be compared mathematically with other student's scores.

remember: Objective tests area scored objectively. The scorer has a key that shows how to assign scores, rather than each scorer choosin a way of interpreting responses.
What are projective tests and an example of it?
Are composed of unstructured stimuli that can be perceived and responded to in many ways. People who use these kind of tests assume that responses will reflect aspects of personality. It is relatively difficult to tranform these tests responses into numerical scores.

ex. The TAT is a projective test that involves showing people pictures and asking them to tell a story about each picture.