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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Arteries carry blood...
away from the heart; pulmonary trunk to lungs; aorta to everything else
microcirculation is where..
exchange occurs; arterioles to feed the capillaries; capillaries exchange with the tissues; venules to receive capillary blood
veins take blood...
back to heart
arteries and veins have 3 layers
tunica interna (innermost-endothelium-in contact with blood); tunica media (middle layer of smooth muscle-vasoconstrict/vasodilate); tunica externa (outer layer of loose connective tissue)
types of arteries
elastic arteries, muscular, arterioles
elastic arteries
largest, closest to heart, stretch during systole, recoil during diastole
tiny branches of small arteries; feeders of capillary networks
properties of capillaries
where exchange btwn blood and cells take place; organized into interconnected capillary beds; vasomation of precapillary sphincters (bands of smooth muscle) controls flow
properties of veins
collect blood from capillaries; merge into medium-sized veins (have valves); merge then into large veins (blood pressure is low here--valves keep blood flowing toward the heart)
factors affecting blood flow
pressure--flow goes up as pressure difference goes up, glow goes down from higher to lower pressure, regulated by nervous and endocrine systems; peripheral resistance--flow goes down as resistance goes up
control of peripheral resistance consists of three components...
vascular resistance--goes up as diameter is reduced, arteriole diameter dominates; viscosity of blood--depends on hematocrit; turbulence--cause of pathological sounds
pressures in the systemic circuit
arterial pressure (overcomes peripheral resistance to maintain flow to the organs); capillary pressure (excessive pressure causes edema); venous pressure (low pressure that drives venous return, affects cardiac output and peripheral flow)
arterial pressure
rises during ventricular systole; falls during ventricular diastole; pulse pressure is difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure (lessens w/distance from heart)
functions of capillary exchange
maintain communication btwn plasma and interstitial fluid; speed the distribution of nutrients, hormones, and dissolved gases; flush antigens to lymphoid tissue; aid movement of proteins
dynamics of capillary exchange
small molecules diffuse across endothelium; water follows osmotically; balance of forces determines direction of filtration (capillary pressure forces fluid out and protein osmostic pressure pulls fluid in)
factors assisting venous return
low venous resistance; valves in veins; compression of veins by muscular contraction; respiratory pump pulls blood into thorax
factors affecting tissue blood flow
cardiac output, peripheral resistance; blood pressure
homeostasis of tissue perfusion
autoregulation (local control of pre-capillary sphincters); CNS control (responds to blood pressure, blood gases); hormone control (short-term adjustments: blood pressure, peripheral resistance; long-term: blood volume)
neural control of blood flow and pressure...
baroreceptor reflexes and chemoreceptor reflexes
baroreceptor reflexes
adjust cardiac output and peripheral resistance to maintain normal blood pressure; driven by baroreceptors (aortic sinus, carotid sinus, atrial baroreceptors)
chemoreceptor reflexes
respond to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH; sense blood and cerebrospinal fluid; impact cardioacceleratory, cardioinhibitory and vasomotor centers
Hormonal CV Regulation
short-term: epinephrine from adrenal medulla, cardiac output and peripheral resistance; long-term: antidiuretic hormone (ADH), angiotensin II, erythropoietin (EPO), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
hormone effects on CV regulation
ADH, angiotensin II promote vasoconstriction; ADH, adolsterone promote water, salt retention; EPO stimulates RBC production; ANP promotes sodium, water loss
exercise and the cardiovascular system
cardiac output rises; blood flow to skeletal muscle increases; flow to non-essential organs falls; exercise produces long-term benefits (large stroke volumes, slower resting heart rates, greater cardiac reserves)
response to hemorrhage (blood loss)
increase in cardiac output; mobilization of venous reserves; peripheral vasoconstriction; release of hormones that defend blood volume
vessels of the pulmonary circuit
pulmonary truk (from right ventricle to lungs); pulmonary arteries (left to right); pulmonary veins (left to left atrium)
systemic circulation
ascending aorta (from left ventricle, feeds coronary circulation); aortic arch (feeds shoulders, neck, head); descending aorta (feeds inferior body regions)
major arteries of neck and limbs all lie...
major veins form...
dual-venous drainage---are either superficial or deep; serves temp. control needs
superior vena cava
drains head, neck, shoulders, arms, chest
inferior vena cava
drains most of body below diaphragm
hepatic portal vein
carries blood draining the digestive system to the liver for purification and storage of absorbed nutrients
fetal circulation
placenta--receives two umbilical arteries from fetus, drained by one umbilical vein to the fetus (joins ductus venosus in liver); pulmonary bypass--lets blood flow skip the lungs, foramen ovale (btwn atria in interatrial septum, becomes fossa ovalis in adult); ductus arteriosus--btwn pulmonary trunk and aorta; both pathways close after birth
Age-Related changes in the heart
reduction in max cardiac output; impaired nodal and conduction function; stiffening of cardiac skeleton; restricted coronary flow due to atherosclerosis; fibrous replacement of damaged myocardium