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51 Cards in this Set

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Kinematics
The process of predicting injury patterns that may result from the forces and motions of energy.
List examples of Blunt and penetrating trauma?
Blunt - Baseball bat,


Penetrating - Gun shot wouds, Knive wounds, Ice pick
Blunt injury?
occurs from any type of impact resulting in two forces; change of spped and compression.
Penetrating trauma
a temporary cavity is created as happens with blunt trauma as well as a permanent cavity when the skin is broken.
List three signs associated with a skull fracture
Blood and cerebrospinal fluid drainage
Raccoon Eyes
Battle's Sign
Raccoon Eyes
Bilateral ecchymosis or bruising around the eye present wiht a basilar skull fracture may be a late sign
Battle's sign
Ecchymosis or bruising behind the ears present with a basilar skull fracture; may be a late sign
Intracranial pressure
pressure inside the head.
Cheyne Stokes respirations
A repetitive pattern of slow, shallow breathing to rapid, deep ventilations back to slow, shallow breaths followed by a period of apnea.
Cushing reflex
Increases in the blood pressure, respiratory rate and decreasing pulse rate, is known as Cushing refelx or triad, a late sign of increased ICP
Level of responsiveness
Is an extremely important in the evaluation of any brain injuury. A cahgen in teh level of resonsiveness is the most significant sign to follow when monitoring the patient.
Hemiplegia
A condition in which one side of the body is paralyzed.
Paraplegia
A condition in which the lower exrremities become paralyzed
Quadriplegia
A condition in which all four extremities become paralyzed.
Describe decorticate and decerebrate posturing?
Decorticate is when you flex your upper extremities are flexed at the elbows and wrist. Legs may also be flexed.
Describe the mechanism of hypoperfusion?
Hypoperfusion is the fluid passing through an organ or part of the body that does not have properly oxygenated blood. During a brain injury you must provide O2!
List four mechanisms of spinal injury?
Flexion, Rotation, Extension, Vertical Conpression.
Spinal Shock?
A complete transection of the spinal cord that causes the patient to lose sensation and voluntary movement below the injury.
List three types of devices used to assist with spinal immobilization?
C-collar, or any other device that you put together that secures the head.
half spine board - KED
Backboard
What are reasons for a rapid extrication?
Fire, water, danger of explosion, life-threating injuries.
Flail chest?
Flail chest occurs when two or more ribs are broken in two or more places. At least one section of the chest wall will move in a direction opposite that of the remainder of the chest, whic is called paradoxical motion.
pheumothorax.
When air is present in the pleural space, a simple pneumothorax exists.
List three signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax?
Decreased or absent breath sounds on the affected side, pain and dyspnea.
List two early and late signs or symptoms of a tension pneumothorax.
Early signs - decreased or absent breath sounds, dyspnea, and tachypnea despite treatment.

Late signs - Tracheal deviaiton(away from the injured side) jugular vein distention, signs of acute hypoxia, tympany, and narrowing pulse pressure.
Tension pneumothorax
When aire enters the pleural space but does not exit, pressure builds inside the chest. This is called a Tension pneumothorax.
Definitive care
Inhospital care that resolves the patient's illiness or injury after a definitive diagnosis has been established.
State the importance of rapid transport to definitive care
You can only do so much in the field, get to the hospital where they have more tools to use, plus they can go to surgery!
Hemothorax
A hemothorax occurs when the blood collects within the pleural space. Causes include bleeding from the lung or from blood vessels within the chest.
Hemopneumothorax
is present when air and blood accumulate in the pleural cavity. Usually in a penetrating trauma.
List four signs and symptoms of abdomial trauma.
Abdominal pain, rigidity, tenderness, distentionk, brusing, guarding, pelvic instability.

Evisceration - organs showing.
Soft-tissue trauma
Soft-tissue trauma involves injury to the skin and surrounding structures.
Contusion
Bruising below the dermis caused by blunt trauma
Hematoma
Swelling casued by leaking blood vessels below the dermis; caused by blunt trauma.
Crush injuries
are caused by a crushing force applyed to the body. Usually extremities, torso, pelvis. Blood vessel injuries and rupturing organs.
Compartment syndrome.
Surgical emergency. Blunt trauma to an area with minimal ability to stretch, no where for the blood and swelling to go.
Crush syndrome
Grain bin accident, trench accident.
Abraion
outermost layer of skin is rubbed away by friction. Road rash
Laceration
Caused by a tear, split, or incision into the skin.
Puncture wounds
Cuased by a contact with sharp, pointed objects.
Avulsion
is the loss of full thickness of skin and usually is not repaired.
Amputation
involves partial or complete loss of a limb due to some type of mechanical force.
Describe the care of an amputated body part.
Wrap it in sterile dressing, Dressing can be dry or wet with Lactied Ringer or Normal saline, place in plastic bag, then place on plastic bag on ice. Transport to hospital.
Three degrees of burns
Superfical - Sunburn
partial thickness - epidermis and dermis but no underlying tissue.
Full Thickness - All dermal layers and muscle, bone, No pain, all nerves are burned away,
Rule of nines
A system used to estimate the percentage of body surface involved in a burn injury.
Head/neck 9
Arms - 9
Front 18
Back 18
Legs 18 on both
privates 1

baby -
Head 18
arms 9
Front 18
Back 18
Legs 14
1
Identify one difference between open and closed bone injuries
Open is when a bone breaks and breaks through the skin.

Closed is when a bone breaks and it does not break through the skin.
List three signs and symptoms of a bone or joint injury
Deformity, abnormal position
pain and tenderness
Grating
Swelling
Brusing and discoloration
Guarding
Exosed bone ends
Joint locked into postion
Identify three complicaiton of musculoskeletal trauma
Excessive bleeding do to bone ends
Restriction of blood flow because of bone ends compressing blood vessels.
Damage to muscle, nerves tissue.
Conversion of closed fractures to open
Paraylisis
List three complication from Splinting
If it is too tight compression of the nerves, tissues and blood vessels.

Distral circulation can be compromised or the bone injury could become worse.

Surrounding tissue, nerves can be damage by excessive movement.
Multisystem trauma
Serious injury occurs when two or more major systems of the body, A rapid, accurate initial assessment is needed to recognize and treat hypoxia and shock.
Rapid transport
Delivering the paqtient iwth multisystem trauma to a definitive care without unnescessary delay, the emt-i shoudl spend no longer than 10 minutes in the field unless extenuating circumstances occur.
Trauma center
Hospital providing emergency and specialized intensive care to critically ill and injured patients; has a well-rehearsed inhouse team that can place the trauma patient suffering with hemorrhage in the operating room within 10 to 15 minutes after arrival.