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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile married.
Still separate govts. Power of monarchs limited b/c large religious groups. Christian, Jewish, and Muslims had own laws and officials.
Cause of the Hundred Years' War
William of Normandy conquered England. He, and his sucessors had land in England and France. Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine, french heir of lands. Now, Henry II had more land than French King. Then French king died. King Edward III, grandson of french king, said he was king of France, but it was English land. Sucessor of throne, Philip of Valois, a nephew of dead king, prepared for war.
What is a cortes?
Spanish equivalent of Parliament- an assembly of nobles, clergy, and town officials. Could review monarch's policies
Effects of Hundred Years' War
France suffered more than England because all fighting was in France. England had civil wars, but unified as well. Declined feudalism b/c of inventions of weapons. Taxes raised because expensive armies.
What is the Spanish Inquisition?
A court that enforced Catholic teachings. Ferdinand and Isabella believed all Spaniards to be Catholic for Spain to be united.
Major Battles
England won most of early battles. Battle at Crécy - French outnumbered the English. But, English footsoldiers had Welsh longbow, and a long iron tube mounted on a pole (later made into the cannon). Battle of Agincourt, English won even though outnumbered.
Spain after the Hundred Years' War
Spain had been full of war. Engaged in the Reconquista (reconquest) of Muslim lands. Portugal in west, Castile in middle, and Aragon on east.
Accomplishments of Louis XI in France
Louis unified France, monarch had a lot of power. Strengthened bureaucracy of government, kept nobles controlled, and promoted trade and agriculture.
What is the War of the Roses?
30-year struggle for English throne of two royal families. Lancaster (red rose) and York (white rose)
Edward, his brother Richard III, and Henry Tudor
Edward, duke of York, became King Edward IV. Heirs of throne were his sons, but his bro, Richard III said he was king, and locked the 2 boys in the Tower of London. Found murdered. Richard died at the hand of Henry Tudor, a Lancaster noble.
France after the Hundred Years' War
French monarchy has power. Taxes for standing (permanent) armies. Louis XI, son of Charles VII, wanted to unite France. Wanted Burgundy, thriving city. Its ruler, Charles the Bold, wanted Burgundy to be an independent state. So, Louis let Charles quarrel with Swiss. Charles killed in battle with Swiss. Burgundy divided into 2 parts: north half to his daughter Mary, and rest part of France.
Henry Tudor becomes King Hentry VII, the first Tudor king. Accomplishments?
Avoided foreign wars, reclaimed power over lords and nobles. So, after War of the Roses, English monarchy is strong, no rivals.
Joan of Arc (Maid of Orléans) leading the French to victory (technically Charles VII)
Grew up in French village of Domremy. Illiterate. Said had message from God to rid France of the English. Went to Chinon to tell Charles, heir to French throne, to give her command. Tested her, then gave her command of troops. She went to Orléans and fought - WON! Burned at stake b/c witch and heretic. 24 yrs after - innocent. Port of Calais only French territory still under English.