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10 Cards in this Set

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How did the First Crusade start?
Arabs (mostly muslims) invaded Jerusalem. Christians and Jews were allowed to live there. Then, Turks took land, and banned Jews and Christians. Turks also threatened Byz Emp (Constantinople). Byz Emp emperor asked pope for help.
What happened in the Second Crusade?
Turks conqured part of Crusader states. Pope Eugenius wanted it back. Second Crusade! Persuaded King Louis VII of France and Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III. Unsuccessful b/c two kings always argued.
Pope Urban II asked for volunteers to go on a Crusade.
Anyone could join the Crusade. Promised salvation if killed. Beginning of Christian persecution of Jews. Only won first Crusade. Lost all other 8.
What happened in the third Crusade? CRUSADE OF KINGS.
Saladin, powerful leader, united Muslim forces, and took Jerusalem. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, King Philip Augustus of France, and King Richard I of England. Only Richard made it there. Truce. Tried to persuade Saladin, didn't work. He did allow Christian pilgrims access.
What happened in the First Crusade?
Killed Jews on their way. Met in Constantinople. There, went to Jerusalem. Desert, leader conflicts. After 2 months, finally got Jerusalem. Killed Muslim and Jews living there. End isolation of cultures.
Effects of the Crusades
Break down feudalism and increase authority of Kings. Kings had large taxes for large armies. Nobles died in battle w/o heirs, so gave land to kings. To raise money, many nobles sold estates/allowed serfs to buy their freedom. Contact b/w Muslim and Byz civilizations brough classical texts to Europe. Increased trading with Middle East. Improved technology- better ships, maps, military skills, and weaponry.
What happened during the High Middle Ages?
Better farming methods, growth in population, towns and trade reappeared, etc.
What were the Crusades?
Take up the cross - recover the Holy Land of Jerusalem from the Muslims. European christians went on nine Crusades in all.
Why did the Crusaders want Jerusalem?
Jerusalem was a holy city for people of three faiths. Jews -Zion, ancient temple built by Solomon. Christians -where Jesus was crucified and resurrected. Muslims- 3rd holiest city. Where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
What happened in the other Crusades?
Didn't win any of them. As Muslims finally conquered all Christian territory in Palestine, Europe lost interest.