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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
vagina
colp/o
pregnancy
-gravida
uterus
hyster/o
breast
mamm/o
none
nulli-
ovary
oophor/o
egg
ov/o
to give birth
-para
surgical fixation
-pexy
fallopian tube
salping/o
Allows development of female characteristics

Stimulates growth of endometrium
Estradiol
Secreted by ruptured follicle after ovulation

Stimulates endometrium to nourish ovum
Progesterone
Male hormone secreted by follicle

Important for female sexual drive
Androgen
Contains labia majora/labia minora, clitoris, bartholin's glands, and perineum
Vulva
External genitalia and urethral meatus
Labia majora/Labia minora
Sensitive, erectile tissue
Clitoris
On sides of vagina

Provide lubrication
Bartholin’s glands
Between vaginal orifice and anus
Perineum
One on each side of uterus, produce ovum & hormones
- Menstrual cycle, prepare uterus for fertilized egg, maintain pregnancy, promote growth of placenta
Ovaries
~5” long

Fimbrae create wavelike currents to pull ovum into uterus

Fertilization takes place if sperm cells are present
Fallopian tubes
Nourishes embryo from fertilization until birth

Walls composed of
- myometrium
- endometrium
Uterus
normal position, body of uterus bent forward
Anteflexion
Muscular, elastic tube extending from uterus to exterior of body
- Serves as organ of sexual intercourse, receptor of semen, discharge of menstrual flow, passageway for delivery of fetus
Vagina
Composed of adipose tissue and lactiferous lobules
Mammary Glands
pigmented area around nipple
Areola
Risk factors
- No children
- Begin menstruation at young age
- Bear children later in life
- Diet high in fats

Symptoms
- Change in size/shape of breast
- Lump or thickening
- Bloodstained discharge from nipple
- Dimpling of skin
- Inversion of nipple
- Swelling in armpit
Breast Cancer
Oogenesis = forming mature ovum
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Stimulate single follicle monthly to rupture and release mature ovum, known as ovulation
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
initial menstrual cycle (puberty)
Menarche
Cycle consists of approx. 28 days
- Menstrual phase (days 1-6)
- Proliferative phase (days 7-13)
- Ovulation (day 14)
- Secretory phase (days 15-26)
- Ischemic phase (days 27-28)
Menstrual Cycle
Occurs 24-48 hours after intercourse
- Chemicals in fallopian tube attract sperm
- Enzymes in head of sperm dissolve layer of cells around ovum
- Surface of ovum changes and actually repels other sperm
- Pregnancy begins at moment of conception
Conception
Gestation is 38-42 weeks followed by parturition

Conception to 8 weeks = embryo

9 weeks to birth = fetus

Placenta develops to hold baby and releases estrogen and progesterone; Baby is suspended in amniotic fluid
Pregnancy
What period?
- conception to birth for fetus
Prenatal period
conception to birth for mother
Antepartum
able to live on its own
Viable
Occurs in 3 stages
Childbirth (parturition)
Childbirth stage:

Contractions begin until cervix is dilated to 10cm
Stage of dilation
Childbirth stage:

Complete dilation until birth of baby
Stage of expulsion
Childbirth stage:

Afterbirth is expelled from uterus

Placenta allows exchange of nutrients, O2 and waste products without allowing maternal blood and fetal
blood to mix

Umbilical cord connects fetus to placenta
Placental stage
Hormone that causes uterus to begin regular contractions
Oxytocin
Portion of fetus that can be touched during childbirth
Presentation
Period of 42 days following childbirth before uterus returns to normal size (involution)
Postpartum
Incision through skin & muscles of perineum to enlarge vaginal orifice for baby to pass through
Episiotomy
Milk formation by mother
Lactation
First milk produced by mother rich in nutrients and contains maternal antibodies

Replaced by regular milk by third day
Colostrum
Vaginal discharge during first week after childbirth until endometrial lining is shed
Lochia
First stool of newborn containing materials ingested while in utero

Almost sterile

Absence of it indicates Hirschsprung’s disease

Can be drug tested
Meconium
False labor pains during last
trimester

Irregular time intervals

Disappear when patient changes position or walks about
Braxton Hicks Contractions
System of scoring infants physical condition 1 minute after birth – max score is 10

Records: heart rate, respiration, skin color, muscle tone and response to stimuli
Apgar Score
Malignant tumor of ovary

Normally discovered in advanced stages and may produce few symptoms
- Bloating, back pain, urinary urgency, abdominal pain, constipation, tired

CA-125 blood test, physical exam, imaging studies provide evidence

Cause is unknown
Ovarian cancer
Most common gynecological cancer
- Typically occurs post-menopause

Early symptoms are bleeding

Usually requires hysterectomy
Endometrial (Uterine) cancer
Malignancy of cervix

Incidence is related somewhat to sexual activity
- Highest risk factor is HPV

Pap smears can detect
- Dysplasia – abnormal growth of squamous cells which are detected by Pap smear, may be precancerous

Most commonly affects women 40 – 49 yoa

If left untreated, will be fatal
Cervical Cancer
Multiple cysts on ovaries causing them to enlarge

Caused by hormonal imbalance

Painful

Can cause infertility and menstrual abnormalities (Amenorrhea or menometrorrhagia), obesity or insulin resistance syndrome with development of Type II diabetes
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Inflammation of fallopian tube

Caused by endometriosis or PID
- Usually synonymous with PID
- Hydrosalpinx = inflammation fills tube with tissue fluid
- Pyosalpinx – pus fills tube
Salpingitis
Presence of endometrial tissue outside of uterus (ex. Attach to ovaries)

Seen during reproductive years

Pelvic pain, usually causes infertility

Menopause abates process, managed during reproductive years
Endometriosis
Benign tumor of myometrium

Pelvic pain, excessive bleeding, painful intercourse

Hysterectomy, myomectomy or uterine artery embolization depending on size of tumor
Leiomyoma (fibroid tumor)
Infection of upper genital tract
- Includes one or all: uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and adjacent tissues
- Bacteria ascend from cervix to fallopian tube

Acute, subacute, recurrent or chronic

Assoc with STD’s

Infection can be cured by antibiotics but may leave permanent effects

If left untreated will cause scarring due to adhesions, ectopic pregnancy, may cause infertility and lead to fatal septicemia, pulmonary emboli, shock
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Uterus is bent backward while cervix is in normal position

Assoc with endometriosis
Retroflexion
Stretching of ligaments and weakness of muscles allows uterus to turn downward

Results from childbirth or age

Can affect urination
Uterine prolapse
Absence of monthly menstrual cycle
Amenorrhea
Painful menstruation

Can result from PID, endometriosis, uterine fibroids
Dysmenorrhea
Excessive bleeding during menstrual cycle
Menorrhagia
Excessive bleeding at time other than menstrual cycle
Metrorrhagia
Light or infrequent menstrual cycle

Caused by hormone imbalance
Oligomenorrhea
Cessation of ovarian activity; stops hormone
production

Occurs at approx. 52 yoa

Absence of menses for 1
year

Symptoms: hot flashes, vaginal drying and thinning as estrogen levels fall

Estrogen therapy replacement (ERT)
Menopause
Yeast infection of vagina

Itching, leukorrhea discharge

Can be side effect of antibiotics
Candidiasis
Herniation of bladder into vagina

Caused by childbirth or age

Colporrhaphy
Cystocele
Painful intercourse
Dyspareunia
Herniation of rectum into vagina

Caused by childbirth or age

colporrhaphy
Rectocele
Infection

Caused by candidiasis, trichomonas, bacterial infection or STD
Vaginitis
Any type of abnormal labor and delivery
Dystocia
Temporary disorder of glucose metabolism, blocking action of insuling from pancreas

High glucose crosses placenta causing fetus to grow too rapidly

Dietary management, oral antidiabetic drugs

Mother often develops Type II diabetes later in life
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
termination of pregnancy (deliberate or natural)
Abortion
Pregnancy induced hypertension

Symptoms: edema, proteinuria, high level of protein in urine
Preeclampsia
Toxemia of pregnancy leading to premature delivery

Etiology unknown
- Symptoms: convulsions and coma

Treatment: bed rest, antihypertensive meds
Eclampsia
Implantation of fertilized egg in any site other than normal uterine location

Occurs in 1% of pregnancies, 90% of which occur in oviducts (tubal pregnancy)

Risk increases 10X with one episode of PID
Ectopic pregnancy
Displaced placenta which ruptures

implanted in lower region of uterine wall

3rd trimester onset

Risk factors:
- Increases maternal age
- Increase pregnancies
- Previous surgeries
Placenta previa
Premature separation of normally implanted placenta

Blood may penetrate into myometrium, causing it to weaken and possibly rupture which is life threatening

Fetal death inevitable unless C-section preformed immediately
Abruptio placentae
Common abnormality of delivery; fetal buttocks or feet present rather than head
Breech presentation
Visual exam of cervical tissue and vagina
Colposcopy
Visual exam of interior of uterus and fallopian tubes
Hysteroscopy
Xray exam of breast tissue for precancerous cells or tumors
Mammography
Biopsy of cervix and surrounding tissue for abnormalities (early indicators of cervical cx)

Uses speculum to spread vaginal walls
Papanicolaou (Pap) test
Sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by a needle placed into abdominal and uterine wall

Used to diagnose congenital disorders
- Performed between 15-18 weeks
Amniocentesis
Controversial post menopausal replacement of estrogen and progesterone
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Removal of ovary
Oophorectomy
“tying” of fallopian tube to prevent sperm from reaching ovum (pregnancy)
Tubal ligation
Scraping of cervix to remove material from uterine surface

Used as treatment/diagnostic procedure
Dilation and curettage (D & C)
Surgical removal of uterus (may also include cervix)
Hysterectomy
Changes size, shape or position of breast
Mammoplasty
Measurement of pelvic dimensions to determine if baby can pass through vagina
Pelvimetry
Surgical incision into perineum and vagina to prevent tearing of tissue during childbirth
Episiotomy