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19 Cards in this Set

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How did the horse and the buffalo influence Native American life on the Great Plains?
With horses they were able to travel farther. This also increased mobility often led to war when hunters in one tribe trespassed on other tribes hunting grounds.
- Buffalo provided provided many basic needs. Indians made tepees from buffalo hides and used the skins for clothing, shoes, and blankets. Buffalo meat was dried into jerky or mixed with berries and fat to make a staple food called pemmican. Buffalo sinews were used to make thread and bowstrings. Buffalo bones and horns made tools and toys.
How did the views of native Americans and white settlers differ regarding land ownership?
Native Americans believed that land couldn't be owned, the settlers defined a better life and prosperity in terms of personal property. Owning land and a house, making a mining clam or startin a business would give them a stake in the country. Prospectors, settlers and ranchers argued alike that Native Americans had forfeited their rights to the land because they hadn't settled down to improve it. They concluded that the plains were unsettled, settlers started to move in.
What attractions did the West and the Great Plains have for white settlers and immigrants?
The prospect of striking rich was one powerful attraction. Gold fever and mining was still in the air. Also making new businesses and attracting investors.
What role did the railroad play in the early opening of the West to white settlement?
People could now ride from coast to coast in ten days or less. Before they were vulnerable to attack by NA and outlaws. Long distance travel was dangerou, uncomfortable, and slow. But the railroad was expensive to ride on.
Describe how federal policy toward Native American land evolved throughout the later 19c
At first they tried to make the Great Plains one reservation, but with the increasing movement of settlers, the government changed it's policy. So NA and settlers clashed with tragic results.
Sand Creek Massacre
In 1864, the Cheyenne were forced in a barren area of Colorado Territory. They started to raid nearby trails and settlements for food and supplies. Colorado governmor John Evans ordered militia to attack the raiders but urged Cheyenne who didn't want to fight to report to Fort Lyon to be away from harm.
-General S. R. Curtis US army commander in the West ordered that Militian colonel John Chivington attack the sleeping viliage on November 29 1864. 200 inhabitants mostly women and children were killed.
What were the provisions of the Treaty of 1868? Why was it ineffective?
Sioux agreed to live on a reservation along the Missouri River. Southern Kiowa Comanche, Cheyenne, and Arapaho promised to live on large reservations in return for protection and supplies from the US government.
- It was ineffective because the promised supplies often arrived late and were poor of quality and insufficenet quantity. The treaty was forced on the Sioux. The treaty temporary halt to warfare.
Why did Lt. Col. Custer's attack fail? What were the results of "Custer's Last Stand?"
-He unestimated the number of NA warriors about 2000 to 3000 awaited him.
-His men and horses were exhusted.
-He split his regiment and attacked with barely 200 men.
-NA lead by Crazy Horse the warriors in warpaint and bonnets with raised spears or rifles killed Custer and all of him men in 20 minutes. Americans were angry.
But to prevent NA people from starvation Sitting Bull was forced to surrender.
What were the provisions of the Dawes Act of 1887? What was its impact on individual land ownership in the Native American community?
- To Americanize the NA by cultivating in them the desire to own property and to farm. It broke up reservations and distributed soem reservation land about 160 acres for farming or 302 acres for grazing to each adult head of a NA family. But the NA received nothing from the sale of these lands. By 1934 whites had taken two thirds of the territory. So the rest of the land was useless for farming.
# Describe the involvement of Christian denominations in the effort to "Americanize" Native Americans.
Off reservation boarding schools like Zitkala-Sa flourished. Reformers like Richard H Pratt who founded the Carlisle school taught NA children that their traditional ways were backward and supersitious. Teachers promoted teh values of white civilization and returned teh educated children to the reservations.
What were the effects of the destruction of the buffalo on the Native American's way of life?
It destroyed the Plains Indians main source of food, clothing, shelter, and fuel. Railroad compainies like the Kansas Pacific hired buffalo hunters to accompany the workers and supply them with meat. Some turned to buffalo as a source of income. Tourists and fur traders also hot buffalo for sport from speeding railroad trains.
What events led to the Battle of Wounded Knee in South Dakota in 1890?
The Ghost Dance which was a movement going around the reservation was to be banned. Military leaders decided to arrest Sitting Bull and killed him. On December 29 1890 the Seventh Cavalry Custer's old regiment rounded up abou t350 starving and freezing Sioux to a camp at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. The soldiers demanded to give up all weapons. NA resisted and within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed NA.
Why do you think that many people proclaimed the frontier closed in 1890?
Answer
Sitting Bull
He was a warrior, counselor, and medicine man and was determined that the whites leave Sioux territory. His most famous fight was at Little Bighorn River where he murdered Custer. He was killed on December 15 1890.
assimilation
in which NA were expected to give up their beliefs and the way of life and become part of the white culture. NA had lost much land and their means of independemtn living but didn't want to lose their culture.
Ghost Dance
The Sioux preformed a ritual called Ghost Dance. The movement spread rapidly among the 25000 Sioux on the Dakota reservation. It's popularity alarmed the military leaders.
Homestead Act (1862)
offered 160 acres of land to anyone who would live on and cultivate it for five years. From 1862 to 1900 between 400,000 to 600000 families took advantage of the governments offer. Some Germans and Scandinavian farmers came in search of riches.
Exodusters - African Americans who moved from the post Reconstruction South to Kansas in a great exodus.
Pacific Railroad Act (1862)
which granted huge government loans and lands to Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads. Both compaines hired thousands of immigrants like Chinese to build bridges, dig tunnels and lay track. This act gave them a reliabel way to get there and a way to ship their crops to growing urban markets
Red River War of 1874-1875
The Kiowa and Comanche refused to move to a reservation in the Texas panhandle. The US Army responded to the NA guerilla warfare by herding the friendly tribespeople onto reservations and opening fire on all others. General Philip Sheridan a Union Army veteran gave orders to destroy their villages and ponies, but bring back all women and children. The Army won.