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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Personal selling
person-to-person communication in which a seller educates prospective customers and attempts to influence their purchase choices.
nonpersonal communication paid for by an identified sponsor, involves either mass communication via newspapers, magazines, radio, television, or other media, or direct-to-consumer communication via postal or electronic mail
like advertising, is nonpersonal communication to a mass audience, but unlike advertising, publicity is not directly paid for by the company that enjoys the publicity.
Sales promotions
consists of all marketing activities that attempt to stimulate quick buyer action, or, in other words, attempt to promote immediate sales of a product
Trade-oriented sales promotions
include the use of various types of allowances and merchandise assistance that activate wholesaler and retailer response
Consumer-oriented sales promotions
include coupons, premiums, free samples, contests/sweepstakes, rebates, and other devices.
Sponsorship marketing
the practice of promoting the interests of a company and its brands by associating the company with a specific high-profile event or a charitable cause
Integrated marketing communications (IMC)
a system of managing and integrating all marketing-communications elements so that all elements adhere to the same message.
360-degree branding
surrounding customers/prospects with the brand message at every possible opportunity and allowing them to use whatever information about the brand they deem most useful
Experiential programs
special events that attempt to create the sensation that a sponsoring brand is relevant to the consumer’s life and lifestyle
Database marketing
involves collecting and electronically storing (in a database) information about present, past, and prospective customers
Brand awareness
based on whether a brand name comes to mind when customers think about a particular product category and the ease with which the name is evoked
Brand recognition
the ability of customers to identify a brand if it is presented to them on a list or if hints/cues are provided
Brand recall
the ability of customers to retrieve a brand name from memory without any reminders or cues
TOMA (top of the mind awareness)
exists when a brand is the first recalled when customers think of the available options in a particular product category
Brand image
the types of associations that come to the customer’s mind when contemplating a particular brand.
Brand association
simply the particular thoughts and feelings that a customer has about a brand
Top-down budgeting
senior management decides how much each subunit receives
Bottom-up budgeting
managers of subunits determine how much is needed to achieve their objectives; these amounts are then combined to establish the total marketing budget
Bottom-up/Top-down process
brand managers submit budget requests to a chief marketing officer who coordinates the various requests and then submits an overall budget to top management for approval
Top-down/bottom-up process
top managers first establish the total size of the budget and then divide it among the various brand managers
Positioning statement
the key idea that encapsulates what a brand is intended to stand for in its target market’s mind and then consistently delivers the same idea across all media channels
Media strategy
consists of four sets of interrelated activities: (1) selecting the target audience, (2) specifying media objectives, (3) selecting media categories and vehicles, and (4) buying media
Percentage-of-sales method
involves allocating a fixed percentage of past or anticipated sales revenue to advertising
Objective-and-task method
involves (1) specifying the objectives that a particular ad or entire ad campaign is intended to achieve, (2) identifying the specific tasks that must be accomplished in order to reach these objectives, and (3) estimating the anticipated cost of achieving the specified tasks
Gross rating points (GRPs)
the accumulation of rating points including all vehicles in a media purchase over the span of a particular campaign (equals R*F)
Cost per thousand (CPM)
calculated by dividing the cost of an ad placed in a particular ad vehicle by the number of people (expressed in thousands) who are exposed to that vehicle
refers to the fact that the internet user has control over the flow of information
allows users to select the information they perceive as relevant and advertisers to build relationships with customers via two-way communication
Opt-in e-mailing
is the practice of marketers asking for and receiving customers’ permission to send them messages on particular topics
Sales promotions
involve incentives offered by a manufacturer to induce the trade (wholesalers and retailers) and/or consumers to buy a brand and/or to encourage the sales force to aggressively sell it
Trade promotions
typically in the form of off-invoice allowances, are directed at wholesalers, retailers, and other marketing intermediaries. This form or promotion represents the first step in any promotional effort
Trade allowances
(or trade deals) come in a variety of forms and are offered to retailers simply for purchasing the manufacturer’s brand or for performing activities in support of the manufacturer’s brand
Off-invoice allowances
deals offered periodically to the trade that allow wholesalers and retailers to simply deduct a fixed amount from the full price at the time the order is placed
Forward buying or bridge buying
when retailers purchase enough product during a manufacturer’s off-invoice allowance period to carry the retailers over until the manufacturer’s next regularly scheduled deal
occurs when a manufacturer restricts an off-invoice allowance to a limited geographical area, resulting in some wholesalers and retailers buying abnormally large quantities at the deal price and then transshipping the excess quantities to other geographical areas
Trade show
a temporary forum (typically lasting several days) for sellers of a product category to exhibit and demonstrate their wares to present and prospective buyers
Consumer promotions
promotions that are directed at end users rather than at the trade
Immediate reward
one that delivers the savings or gift as soon as the consumer performs a marketer-specified behavior
Delayed rewards
those that follow the behavior by a period of days, weeks, or even longer
Generating trial purchases
refers to inducing nonusers to try a brand for the first time, or encouraging retrial by consumers who have not purchased the brand for an extended period
Encouraging repeat purchases
includes manufacturers’ efforts to hold on to their current users by rewarding them for continuing to purchase the promoted brand, or to load up with the product so they have no need to switch to another brand
Reinforcing brand image
involves carefully selecting the right premium object, or appropriate sweepstakes prize, to support a brand’s desired image
Proactive marketing public relations (proactive MPR)
offensive, rather than defensive, and opportunity-seeking rather than problem-solving. The major role of proactive MPR is in the areas of product introductions or product revisions (publicity= major tool)
Reactive MPR
a form of defensive PR that deals with dramatic developments such as product defects or flaws that have negative consequences for the organization. It attempts to repair a company’s reputation, prevent market erosion, and regain lost sales
Corporate sponsorships
involve investments in the events or causes for the purchase of achieving various corporate objectives, such as increasing sales volume, enhancing a company’s reputation or a brand’s image, and increasing brand awareness
Event-related marketing
a form of brand promotion that ties a brand to a meaningful cultural, social, athletic, or other type of high-interest public activity
Cause-related marketing (CRM)
a form of corporate philanthropy that links a company’s contributions (usually monetary) to a pre-designated worthy cause with customer purchasing behavior