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34 Cards in this Set

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Brigham Young
Brigham Young was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877. He was also the founder of Salt Lake City and the first governor of Utah Territory, United States. Brigham Young University was named in his honor.
Nauvoo
Its historic importance and its religious significance to members of both The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Community of Christ, other groups stemming from the Latter Day Saint movement, and groups such as the Icarians.
1844 election
In the United States presidential election of 1844, Democrat James Knox Polk defeated Whig Henry Clay in a close contest that turned on foreign policy, with Polk favoring the annexation of Texas and Clay opposed.
John Tyler
A longtime Democratic-Republican, Tyler was nonetheless elected Vice President on the Whig ticket. Upon the death of President William Henry Harrison, on April 4, 1841, only a month after his inauguration he became president. He stood against his party's platform and vetoed several of their proposals. As a result, most of his cabinet resigned, and the Whigs expelled him from the party. Arguably the most famous and significant achievement of Tyler's administration, aside from setting the precedent for presidential succession, was the annexing the Republic of Texas in 1845.
James K Polk
James Knox Polk was the 11th President of the United States. A Democrat, Polk served as Speaker of the House and Governor of Tennessee. Polk was the surprise "dark horse" candidate for president in 1844, defeating Henry Clay of the rival Whig Party by promising to annex Texas. Polk was a leader of Jacksonian Democracy during the Second Party System.
Free Development
It basically meant extending the area of freedom.
Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny was the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic Seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. It was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid-19th century.
Charles Goodyear
discovered the process for the vulcanization of rubber made a new range of manufactured itmes available to the American consumer, most notably the overshoe in 1839.
Cyrus McCormick
patented the mechanical reaper in 1834 which offered an enormous saving in the labor required for harvesting grain. Produced more than 1000 reapers a year by 1851 in chicago.
Walt Whitman
a great american writer who captured exuberance and expansionism of Young America in his song "Song of the Open Road." Also wrote Leaves of Grass in 1855.
Herman Melville
a great american writer who wrote Moby-Dick and symbolized a nation that was over-reaching itself by indulging in pride and exalted sense of destiny with too little concern for the moral and practical consequences.
Daniel Webster
secretary of state in 1842 when he concluded an agreement with the British government over the violent disputes of the maine territory.
Secularization Act
passed by Mexico's Congress in 1833 emancipating the Indians from church control and opened the mission lands to settlement. The government awarded immense tracts of the mission land to Mexican citizens and left the Indians landless.
Young America
a term first used by Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1844. It referred to the new era of commercial development, technological progress, and territorial expansion going on in America during that time. It's premise was that the new generation would lead this surge of physical development and stand for a psotive attitude towards the market economy, a more aggressive foreign policy, and celebration of America's unique strengths and virtues
Stephen F. Austin
the son of a onetime Spanish citizen to whom Mexico granted a large amount of land in hopes that he would help attract settlers from the US. Within a year of receiving the land, the Austin grant population grew to 2,021 people.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
this treaty settled the dispute between the boundary of Maine and Canada. It gave over half of the disputed territory to the US and established a definite northeastern boundary with Canada that extended to the Great Lakes
Oregon Trail
an overland route that brought American migrants to the West Coast during the 1840s. It extended 2000 miles across the northern Great Plains and the Rockies.
Santa Fe Trail
this trail extended from Missouri to Santa Fe. It was relatively dangerous because the travelers had to pass through hostile Indian lands, but the risk was worth it because the profits from trading goods for furs, miles and precious metals was great. Unfortunately, poor relations between Mexico and the US caused the Mexican government to restrict the US's access to the trail.
Joseph Smith
the founder of the Mormon religion. He claimed to have received a series of revelations that called upon him to establish Christ's pure church on earth.
Book of Mormon
the book written by Joseph Smith that became the scripture of the Mormon religion. It described the history of a group of Jews who had left the Holy Land before Jesus came to Earth and then after His crucifixion, Christ appeared to the community and proclaimed the gospel.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Obtianed New Mexico and California for 15 million dollars and established a boarder between Mexico and Texas, and promised that the U.S. government would assume the substantial claims of the American citizens against Mexico.
Winfield Scott
Was ordered to lead an amphibious attack on Veracruz. Veracuz fell after eighteen days of the attack. When Scott then advanced on to Mexico city. The ost important battle was where Scott met General Santa Anna at Cerro Gordo. Scott won this battle and continued to Mexico City where he won that battle.
John C Fremont
Lead an exploring expedition west. In Califronia they were stiring up problems with the Mexicans. Lead his group in Californa to revolt against the Mexicans and formed the Bear Flag Republic.
Samuel Morse
Inventor of the electric telegraph. It made comminication possible over a long distance.
Frederick Merk
Believed in the idea that racism and anticolonialism dominated the american opinion.
54-40 or Fight
Refered to the latitude of the northern boundary of the desired territory. A slogan coined by the Whigs.
Zachary Taylor
won many of the battles, but when polk found out that he had sent some of the captives free he got mad and sent in Scott. However Taylor still fought battles and won and was known as a military hero.
Secularization Act
Passed by Mexican Congress. Emancipated the Indians from church control and opened the mission lands to settlement.
Empresarios
They were Anglo-American. Received land grants in the 1820s and 1830s
Santa Anna
He was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government. Santa Anna first fought against the independence from Spain, and then supported it. He was not the first caudillo (military leader) of Mexico, but he was among the most original. He rose to the ranks of general and president at various times over a turbulent 40-year career. He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive occasions over a period of 22 years. Did not support the annexation of Texas and fought against the Texas Revolution until he lost.
Tejanos
During the times of independent south Texas, the term also applied to other Spanish-speaking Texans and hispanicized Germans and other Europeans.
Davy Crockett
Went to Texas to help out in the Revoution. In early 1836, Crockett took part in the Texas Revolution and was killed at the Battle of the Alamo in March.
Sam Houston
Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, US Senator for Texas after it joined the United States, and finally as governor of the state. He refused to swear loyalty to the Confederacy when Texas seceded from the Union, and resigned as governor. To avoid bloodshed, he refused an offer of a Union army to put down the Confederate rebellion. Instead, he retired to Huntsville, Texas, where he died before the end of the Civil War.
Lone Star Republic
This was the nickname for Texas. Texas got his nickname in April 21, 1836 the last battle. The nickname refers to the one star they had on their flag.