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67 Cards in this Set

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The Class of vertebrate fish that lack a jaw and have a cartilaginous skeleton.
Class Agnatha
Herbivores have longer intestines than carnivores in these vertebrates.
Fish
The Class of vertebrate fish that have an evolved jaw that allow them to eat bigger, harder food.
Class Chondrichthyes
Most fish undergo this chain of events for respiration.
Water comes through mouth, passes over gills, and comes out through operculum.
The Class of vertebrate fish that do not have paired appendages (like fins) and are mostly parasitic.
Class Agnatha
For this reason, sharks will suffocate if they stop moving.
Since they only have gill slits and no operculum, they have no way of forcing air over their gills while stationary.
The Class of vertebrate fish whose notochord is replaced by vertebrae as an adult and have internal fertilization along with a strong sense of smell and a cartilaginous skeleton.
Class Chondrichthyes
The gills of fish allow them to preform respiration because of this.
The oxygen from the water diffuses across the membranes of the gills into the capillaries as it goes through.
The Class of vertebrate fish that have a bony skeleton and jaw and that preforms mostly external fertilization.
Class Osteichthyes
All animals in the Classes Agnatha, Chondrichtheys, and Osteichthyes are these types of vertebrates
Fish
An air-filled chamber that gives a fish buoyancy and allows it to float or sink.
Swim Bladder
The prefix "oste-" means
bone
These structures are evolved into the Class Chondrichthyes and give the fish greater control over movement.
Paired Pectoral fins
The prefix "chondra-" means
cartilage
The Class of vertebrate fish with a swim bladder and a lateral line.
Class Osteichthyes
The suffix "-ichthyes" means
fish
A sensory organ located in the Class Chondrichthyes and Class Osteichythes that detects vibrations in the water.
lateral line
Fish that breathe air have:
swim bladders that have been modified into a primitive lung (keyword - air).
This Class of vertebrate fish can sense electricity and have a strong sense of taste and smell.
Class Osteichthyes
This very toxic substance that must be very dilute is how fish excrete waste.
Ammonia
These are two ways for external fertilization for fish.
1.) Lay a few large eggs (in Class Agnatha) 2.) Lay a lot of little eggs (Class Osteichthyes)
Fish have this kind of heart that is efficient, yet slow.
2 - chambered heart
This is where the food in a fish goes to be digested more after it is partially digested by the stomach.
the pyloric ceca
These vertebrates can feed by being parasites, filter feeding, herbivores, or carnivores.
Fish
What does "amphibian" mean?
Double life
Give two advantages amphibians had of moving to land.
1 - Sometimes they were forced there due to drying up ponds.
2 - There is lots of food on land.
3 - There is shelter on land.
4 - There are no predators on land.
5 - There is more oxygen in the air than in the water.
Give two disadvantages of amphibians moving to land.
1 - Air temperatures fluctuate on land more than the water temperatures.
2 - Bodies are heavier and require more energy to move due to gravity on land.
3 - Cells dry out very quickly.
Which type of fish are amphibians thought to have evolved from?
Lobe-finned fish.
What is one similarity between amphibians and the fish they are believed to be evolved from?
They have similar bones and joints.
Many species of amphibians breathe air by coming up to the surface every few minutes to "gulp" some air into their ___________.
Swim bladders
Give two adaptations that amphibians have in order to live on land.
1 - Limbs and limb girdles help support their weight on land.
2 - A ribcage supports their internal organs and prevents lungs from collapsing.
3 - Some have lungs.
4 - They have ears (tympanic membranes) that better transmit sound in air.
5 - They can prevent water loss using mucus glands in their skin or using their eyelids.
6 - More efficient circulation.
Amphibians have this type of fertilization.
external
This is where amphibians lay their eggs.
In water, in order to keep them moist.
Most amphibians undergo this process in order to grow.
metamorphosis
Amphibians in their aquatic/youth stage are ___________ while amphibians in their adult stage are ______________. (type of feeding)
herbivorous, carnivorous
Amphibians can breathe through these two structures on/in their bodies.
Lungs and skin.
Amphibians with less efficient lungs have to stay near a ___________ source.
water
This is the form that amphibians excrete their waste in; it is very toxic so it must be dilute.
ammonia
Amphibians have this type of heart in their aquatic/youth stage.
2 - chambered heart
Amphibians have this type of heart in their adult stage.
3 - chambered heart
These vertebrates are adapted to live in hot, dry places and are thought to have evolved from amphibians.
Reptiles
Give 2 adaptations that reptiles have to living on land/preventing water loss.
1 - Thick, scaly skin.
2 - More developed lungs.
3 - More efficient circulatory system.
4 - Change in limb position to under the body allows better support and makes moving easier.
5 - Claws and teeth for protection and obtaining food.
6 - Internal fertilization makes them not dependent on water to transmit sperm to egg.
Where does the embryo of a reptile develop?
Inside an amniotic egg.
What is the function of the shell in the amniotic egg?
It prevents water loss.
Which structures provides food for the embryo while in the amniotic egg?
Yolk and Albumen
What is the function of the amnion?
To cushion the embryo.
What does the allantios in the amniotic egg do?
It collects waste and gas exchange.
Most reptiles are ___________ (describing their eating habits).
carnivorous
What organs do reptiles breathe through?
Lungs
How do reptiles remove waste from their bodies? Why is this?
They convert the ammonia in their bodies into uric acid and this is excreted with their feces. They do this because most reptiles live in hot desert-like habitats and water is too precious to be used to dilute the extremely toxic ammonia.
How many chambers do reptilian hearts have?
3 (or in some cases 4).
This vertebrate class contains animals that are ectothermic (cold-blooded).
Class Reptilia
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of being ectothermic.
Advantages:
1 - It does not cost much energy.
2 - Ectothermic animals can survive by eating only 1/10 of the amount of food that a mammal their size would have to.
Disadvantages:
1 - Chemical reactions occur in warm temperatures, so if an ectotherm gets cold, his entire body's processes could slow down.
2 - If it gets too hot, a reptile's proteins could be denatured.
This Class of the the Subphylum Vertebrate is thought to have evolved from reptiles (dinosaurs).
Aves
This fossil that shows evidence of birds' evolution from dinosaurs has feathers and wings, but also claws (on its wings), teeth, and a long tail.
Archaeopteryx
This fossil of a dinosaur also shows evidence of birds being evolved from reptiles due to its hollow bones and developed breastbone, but they also had a bony tail, teeth, and claws on their forelimbs.
Protoavis
Give 3 similarities between bird and reptiles that prove their close relationship.
1 - Clawed toes.
2 - Scales on feet.
3 - Internal fertilization.
4 - Amniotic egg.
5 - Excrete waste in form of uric acid.
Give 5 adaptations that allow birds to flly.
1 - Feathers (for insulation) and wings (provide lift).
2 - Large sternum (allows the attachment of powerful wing muscles).
3 - A 4 - Chambered heart.
4 - Hollow bones (make them lighter).
5 - No teeth (also makes them lighter).
6 - Beak instead of jaw (makes them lighter).
7 - Air sacs attached to the lungs.
8 - Internal testes located under air sacs.
This muscular sac is found in the esophagus of a bird and makes up for their lack of teeth by mushing the food they consume.
A crop
What is the advantage of having air sacs attached to the lungs?
Birds obtain oxygen while both inhaling and exhaling.
What is the advantage of having internal testes located underneath air sacs?
If the testes were external, it would cause problems of balance for birds. Since sperm production must occur at a temperature cooler than body temperature, the cool air from the air sacs keeps the testes slightly cooler than body temperature.
This is the type of fertilization that occurs in birds.
Internal
The embryo of the bird developes in this type of egg.
Amniotic egg
This element is found in birds eggs and it makes them harder and tougher than reptile eggs.
Calcium
Birds excrete their wastes in this form.
Uric acid
Why is a powerful, 4 - chambered heart necessary for a bird?
Flying requires a lot of energy.
This word explains the birds body temperature.
Endothermic