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38 Cards in this Set

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Who was the man that proposed the concept of the self that is widely accepted today?
William James
What are the two selves called?
I-self, Me-self
Define 'I-self'
It's a subjective entity that constructs and seeks to know the other self.
Define 'me-self'
What can be objectively known about the self. Also called the self-concept.
Define 'self-concept'
a total picture of our abilities and traits
What age do children develop self-concept?
Age 2, as toddlers
What are the three parts the Me-self is divided into?
material self, social self, and spiritual self
Define 'material self'
physical attributes, possessions
Define 'social self'
self seen by others
Define 'spiritual self'
highest level, consists of thoughts, values, dispositions
What self emerges from birth to 15 months?
I-self
Define 'self-efficacy'
a sense of capability to master challenges and achieve goals
What self emerges between 15-30 months?
Me-self
By 20-24 months toddlers begin to use this form of language..
first-person pronouns
Three year old children describe themselves in these terms..
global terms based on external qualities rather than psychological qualities.
Define 'self-esteem'
Refers to the value we attac to the mental pictures of ourselves.
At what age do children become critical about themselves?
Age 8
Research suggests that ____ have higher self-esteem than ____.
Boys- girls
What are the two self concepts developed by William James?
Core or baseline, barometric self image
Define 'core or baseline'
self image that remains fairly consistent
Define 'barometric self image'
varies in different situations
This psychosocial stage of development occurs in the middle childhood age-
industry v. inferiority
Harter's self-perception profile for children (SPPC)stated..
self-esteem is influenced mostly by physical appearance and social acceptance among others.
Define 'gender identity'
the understanding and acceptance that one is a male or female.
Being less vulnerable, developing faster, less reactive to stress, and more likely to survive infancy are all characteristics of...
a female
Having better visual-spatial skills, mathematics skills, being physically aggressive are all characteristics of..
a male
Define 'gender roles'
The behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and personality traits that a culture considers appropirate for males or females.
Define 'gender-typing'
the process by which children learn and acquire a gender role, takes place early in childhood, but varies.
Define 'gender stereotypes'
Preconceived generalizations about male or female behavior or the belief people share about the typical characteristics of males and females.
What are the four perspectives on gender development?
Biological, psychoanalytic, cognitive, and socialization
This theory focuses on specific physiological or biochemical processes that affect gender development-
biological theory
The development of gender identity is the result of identification (Freudian theory- a young child adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviors of the parents of the same sex.)
psychoanalytic approach
This theory states the awareness that one will always be male or female.
cognitive approach
Gender consistency occurs in how many stages?
3 stages
Name the three stages and their importance.
1st- awareness of own gender
2nd- realization of maturity
3rd- realization of remaining the sex born as
Define 'gender schema' proposed by Sandra Bem
Children socialize themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of information.
What are gender-typed play preferences?
age 3-4 children play with toys that reinforce their gender/sex
What is Bandura's social cognitive theory?
Children learn gender roles through socialization.