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### 28 Cards in this Set

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 phase It is any physically distinct homogeneous part of a system, a physical state of matter intermolecular forces electrostatic forces among particles are called intermolecular forces. phase change Changes from one phase to another of a substance. condensation The process by which a gas changes into a liquid vaporization The process by which a liquid changes into a gas. freezing When liquid solidifies the process due to cooling melting (fusion) When solid changes into a liquid due to increase in temperature. sublimation When a solid turns into a gas directly without changing into a liquid first. deposition When a gas goes directly into a solid phase due to temperature changes. heating-cooling curve It is a curve which shows the changes that occur when heat is added to or removed from a particular sample of matter at a a constant rate. dynamic equilibrium When a system is going from one phase to a second at the same rate as its reverse process, the system is said to be in dynamic equilibrium. vapor pressure The pressure exerted by a liquid at equilibrium is called its vapor pressure. boiling point It is the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the external pressure on a system. melting point The dynamic equilibrium between the change from a solid to a liquid state is called the melting point. It is the same as freezing point. phase diagram Phase diagram is a contruct which describes the changes of phase of a substance under various conditions of temperature and pressure. critical point The liquid-gas line ends at the critical point. triple point The three phase-transition curves meet at the triple point, the temperature and pressure at which the threee phases of a substance are in equilibrium. van der Waal's radius It is half the closest distance between two molecules that come close due to the intermolecular forces between them. ion-dipole force When an ion and a nearby polar molecule or dipole attract each other an ion dipole force results. dipole-dipole force When polar molecules lie near each other (in liquids and solids), their partial charges give rise to dipole-dipole forces. hydrogen bond (H-bond) It is a special type of dipole-dipole force that arises from a H-atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with lone pairs (such as O, N, F and rarely in P, S and Cl). polarizability When the electron cloud of a particle can be distorted due to the presence of a charge or a dipole, the particle is said to be polarizable. The ease with which this can happen is called polarizability. Trends in polarizability in the Periodic Table. Polarizability increases down a group as atomic size increase. It decreases from left to right across a period as atomic size decreases. Cations are less polarizable than their parent atoms because they are smaller. Anions are more polarizable than their parent atoms, because they are larger. Dispersion or London force The intermolecular force responsible for the condensed states of nonpolar substances is called the London dispersion force. They are also understood as induced dipole-induced dipole interactions. surface tension This is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount. capillarity The rising of a liquid through a narrow channel against the pull of gravity is called capillarity. viscosity It is a liquid's resistance to its flow resulting from intermolecular attractions that impede its movement. Heating reduces viscosity. Unique Properties of water It has great solvent power due to the presence of H-bonds. It has high specific heat capacity. It has high surface tension and capillarity due to the presence of H-bonds. The density of water in its solid state is less than that of its density in liquid state.