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29 Cards in this Set

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What is synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors
gluconeogenesis
Where does gluconeogenesis mainly operate
liver and kidney
Most reactions of gluconeogenesis occur where
in the cytosol
How many irreversible reactions occur in gluconeogenesis and where do they occur
4 reactions

-glucose-6-P to glucose
-Fructose-1,6-bisP to Fructose-6-P
-Pyruvate to oxaloacetate
-Oxaloacetate to phsophenolpyruvate
What are the energy requirements for making one glucose from 2 pyruvates in gluconeogenesis
4 ATP, 2 GTP, 2 NADH
What are the 4 precursors for gluconeogenesis
-Lactate produced in muscles
-amino acids from protein-rich diet
-glycerol from fat
-propionate and lactate from bacterial fermentation in cattle rumen
The cori cycle involves what two organs
Liver and muscle
What is used to produce energy to drive gluconeogenesis from lactate in cori cycle and where does it occur
fatty acids in the liver
what process is used to convert glucose to lactate in the muscle in cori cycle
glycolysis
What is used to negatively regulate reaction from fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-P
high amount of AMP and Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
What regulates Pyruvate to oxaloacetate reaction and what catalyst does it act on
high amounts of acetyl CoA drive this reaction and it works on pyruvate carboxylase
What are the different ways in which Glucose-6-P are used
-excess goes to glycogen for storage
-glycolysis to form pyruvate and ATP
-glucose for export to blood via glucose-6-phosphatase
-Pentose phosphate pathway yielding Ribose-5-P and NADPH
Where are the enzymes located for pentose phosphate pathway
cytosol
Where does the major source of NADPH come from
pentose phosphate pathway
What is the oxidative branch of pentose phosphate pathway
glucose-6-P to 6-phosphogluconolactone via G-6-P dehydrogenase. 6-phosphogluconolactone to 6-phosphgluconate via gluconolactonase. 6-phosphogluconate to Ribulose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphgluconate dehydrogenase
What is the non-oxidative branch of pentose phosphate pathway
Ribulose-5-P is isomerized to other pentose-P. Two pentose P react with each other to produce a 7 C-sugar and a 3 C-sugar. The 7 C-sugar and 3 C-sugar condense to form a 6 C-sugar and a 4 C-sugar. The 4 C-sugar reacts with another 5 C-sugar to yield a 6 C-sugar and a 3 C-sugar.
What high energy compound is produced twice in the pentose phosphate pathway and where
NADH.

Glucose 6-P to 6-Phosphogluconolactone

6-phosphogluconate to Ribulose 5-P
During the pentose phosphate pathway, when the 4 C-sugar reacts with a 5 C-sugar to produce a 6 C-sugar and a 3 C-sugar, what catalyst is used
transketolase
A genetic defect in what leads to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
transketolase
What is the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
neurological disorder that prevents utilization of glucose in the pentose pathway
Degradation of glycogen is stimulated by what and inhibited by what?
Stimulated by AMP
Inhibited by ATP and G-6-P
Glycogen synthase, a catalyst of what, requires a primer provided by what?
catalyst of glycogen synthesis
requires a primer from glycogenin
What does glycogen synthase do in glycogen synthesis
links together glycogens into a chain
activation of what and inactivation of what leads to glycogen degradation
activation of glycogen phosphorylase and inactivation of glycogen synthase
what promotes glycogen synthesis
glucose
Von Gierk's disease affects what enzyme
G-6-phosphatase
McArdle's disease affects what enzyme
Phosphorylase
Cori's disease affects what enzyme
Debranching enzyme
Anderson's disease affects what enzyme
branching enzyme