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38 Cards in this Set

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Little Ice Age
There was a large number of storms which brought a lot of rain to Europe. The wheat, hay, and oat crops were ruined by the storms which everyone needed to survive.
1315-1322
This is when the Great Famine took place. Twenty-five percent of the harvests were poor. There was hardly any food and many people starved.
Black Death
Also known as the bubonic plague, this disease spread through the areas around the Mediterranean around 1346, causing massive amounts of death. The disease was carried from Eastern Eurasia to Western Eurasia by rats.
East Anglia
The eastern part of England where aspects of the famine had been carefully analyzed. Some people were forced to sell or mortgage their homes in order to get money for food. Most people sold to their wealthy neighbors.
Subsistence Agriculture
Producing food for survival. Many people were forced to do this when torrential rand in 1310 ruined the harvest and brought famine in the province of Languedoc.
Pasteurella pestis
The name of the bacillus which caused the plague. It was discovered in 1894 by a French and Japanese bacteriologist. The bacteria lived in the blood of an animal and the stomach of a flee.
Pneumonic Plague
The form of the plague which was spread from person to person.
Giovanni Bocaccio
Wrote a book called The Decameron which described the Black Death and how it spread.
Agrarian Economy
An economy based on agriculture. England's agrarian economy was very resilient during the Black Plague. The reason for this is that England's population went down because of the plague and it was, therefore, able to have enough food for its people.
Flagellants
people who whipped themselves as punishment because they believed the Black Death was the Christian god's punishment for wickedness
The Hundred Years' War
The wars lasted from 1337 until 1453. It was a war between England and France which began after France confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine.
Capetian Dynasty
The Capetian Dynasty started with Philip the Fair. The dynasty died out in 1328 when the last remaining heir, Charles IV of France, died without an heir.
Queen Isabella
She and her lover, Mortimer, killed her husband, King Edward II in 1327. She proclaimed her son King Edward III and she and Mortimer held real power until 1330.
Salic Law
Says that neither females nor descendants of females can succeed to the French monarchy. This was used so neither Isabella nor her son, King Edward III, could take over the French throne.
Edward II
The King of England who was killed by his wife, Isabella, for being incompetent.
Edward III
Son of Edward II and Isabella who became King by name at the age of 15 when his father was murdered and who gained true power at the age of 18.
Aquitaine
An area in present-day France which was claimed by England as an ancient inheritance. Edward III paid homage for the area, but Philip VI confiscated the duchy, which helped start the Hundred Years' War.
Philip VI of Valois
He was the king of France who confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine which started the Hundred Years' War.
The Dauphin
What the eldest son of the king of France is called.
Joan of Arc
Helped inspire the French to take back the land they lost to the English. Convinced Charles VII that he wasn't illegitimate and that he should go to fight in Orleans. By being at the battle, she increased the moral of the French troops.
the “Commons”
Name for the nights and the burgesses. The began to meet apart from the lords because they had similar interests.
The Babylonian Captivity
The name of the time period (1309-1376) when the pope lived in Avignon, France. This eventually led to the Great Schism.
Papal States
A collection of land owned by the pope.
Avignon
The city in France where the pope lived during the Babylonian Captivity.
Simony
The buying and selling of sacred objects. Pope Urban VI wanted to abolish this.
Pluralism
The act of holding multiple offices simultaneously. Pope Urban VI also wanted to abolish this.
The Great Schism
When there was Pope Urban VI and the antipope Clement VII, the latter living in Avignon.
The Conciliar Movement and its foundations
Followers of this movement wanted general assemblies to be held of Christian people from time to time in order to reform the Church. They wanted the pope to be the head of the Church, but not the absolute authority.
Defensor Pacis
Meaning The Defender of the Peace, this was a controversial work published in 1324. It said that the state was the Church was under the State when it came to unifying people.
John Wyclif
An English scholar who believed and wrote that people should interpret the Bible itself, not let the Pope interpret it. The first English bible was printed because of him.
Lollards
Wyclif's followers were known as Lollards. To loll means “mumblers of prayers and psalms.” Lollards allowed women to preach.
Council at Pisa (1409)
A gathering by the two colleges of Cardinals (from Rome and Avignon), held to decide on who the pope would be. They picked a new pope, but the first two wouldn't step down, so there was now three popes.
Council of Constance (1414-1418)
A gathering which had three goals: to end the schism, to reform the Church, and to wipe out heresy. All three popes were removed from power and a new pope, Martin V, was chosen, ending the Great Schism.
Jan Hus
A priest who taught Wyclif's works. These teachings were considered heretical, but he taught them anyway. Jan was eventually caught and burned at the stake.
Martin V
The new pope chosen at the Council of Constance in order to replace the three current popes.
Merchet
A fine paid to the fiancee of a women by her parents to his Lord, since the Lord would lose him as a worker.
Peasant Revolt in England of 1381
Hundreds of thousands of peasants revolted because they wanted higher wages. Was probably the largest uprising during the Middle Ages.
Dante Alighieri
The man who wrote the Divine Comedy. It's called a comedy, but is really a tragedy.