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35 Cards in this Set

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Lithosphere
The solid, inorganic portion of the Earth, comprised of the rocks of the Earth's Crust as well as the broken and unconcolidated particles of mineral matter overlying the bedrock
Soil
Varying mixture of weathered mineral particles, decaying organic matter, living organisms, gases and liquid solutions. Soil is the part of the outer skin of the Earth occupied by plant roots
Parent Material
The source of the weathered fragments of rock from which soil is made. The solid bedrock or loose sediment that have been transported from elsewhere by action of water, wind or ice.
Humus
A dark colored, gelatinous, chemically stable fraction of organic matter on or in the soil
Litter
The collection of dead plant parts that accumulate at the surface of the soil
Interstices
The pore spaces in the soil
Leaching
The process in which gravitational water dissolves souble materials and carries them downward in solution to be redeposited at lower levels.
Eluviation
The process by which gravitational water picks up fine particles of soil from the upper layers and carries them downward
Illuviation
The process by which fine particles of soil from the upper layers are deposited at a lower level
Soil Color
Most conspicuous soil property. Stains imparted on the surface of particles due to metallic oxides of organic matter.
Soil Texture
Related to the size of particles comprising the soil
Loam
A soil texture in which none of the three principal soil separates (sand, silt, clay) dominates the other two.
Porosity
The amount of pore space between the soil particles and between the peds, which is a measure of the capacity of the soil to hold water and air
Permeability
A soil or rock characteristic in which there are interconnected pore spaces through which water can move (ease with which water can move through soil.)
Colloids
Organic and inorganic microscopic particles of soil that represent the chemically active portion of particles in the soil.
Cation Exchange Capacity(CEC)
Capability of soil to attract and exchange cations
Soil Profile
A vertical cross section from the Earth's surface down through the soil lyaers into the parent material beneath.
Laterization
Dominant pedogenic regime where temperatures are relaticely high throughout the year and which is characterized by rapid weathering of parent material, dissolution of nearly all minerals, and the speedy decomposition of organic matter.
Podzolization
The dominant pedogenic regime in areas where winters are long and cold, and which is characterized by slow chemical weathering of soils and rapid mechanical weathering from frost action, resulting in soils that are shallow, acidic, and with a faily distinctive profile.
Gleization
The dominant pedogenic regime in areas where the soil is saturated most of the time due to poor drainage
Calcification
One of the dominant pedogenic regimes in areas where the principal soil moisture movement is upward because of the mosture deficit. This regime is characterized by a concentration of calcium carbonate in the "B" horizon forming a hardpan, an upward movement of CaCO3 by capillary water by grass roots, and a return of CaCO3 when the grass dies
Salinization
One of the dominant pedogenic regimes in areas where the principal soil moisture movement is upward because of a moisture deficit.
Oxisols (I)
Most weathered and leached of all soils-lacks distinct horizons
Utilisols (I)
Mature, weathered soil (Reddish to yellow in color)
Vertisols (I)
Contains large amounts of clay and a moderate amount of organic mat'l. Alternation of "wetting and drying", "expansion and contraction"
Calcification
One of the dominant pedogenic regimes in areas where the principal soil moisture movement is upward because of the mosture deficit. This regime is characterized by a concentration of calcium carbonate in the "B" Horison forming a hardpan, an upward movement of CaCO3 by capillary water by grass roots, and a return of CaCO3 when the grass dies
Salinzation
One of the dominant pedogenic regimes in areas where the principal soil moisture movement is upward because of a moisture deficit
Alfisols (I)
Ver fertile soil
Spodosols (I)
Very young soils, Very infertile soils
Mollisols
Most productive of all soil types
Aridisols
Cover nearly 20% of the earth's surface
Histosols (II)
High organic matter content soils
Entisols (III)
Least developed of all soils
Inceptisols (III)
Immature soil type (young)
Andisols (III)
> 50% of the parent mat'l is volcanic ash