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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the cardiovascular system provides a mechanism for rapid transport...
(small embryos don't need them)

of nutrients, waste products, repiratory gases (O2&CO2), and cells
Blood (fluid connective tissue) Functions
transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes; regulating pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids; restricting fluid loss at injury sites; defending body against toxins and pathogens; and regulating body temp. by absorbing and redistributing heat
The Composition of Blood
Plasma (46-63%) and formed elements comprise whole blood--red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Blood Volume
liters = 7% body wgt (kg)
adult male = 5-6 liters
adult woman = 4-5 liters
PLASMA
accounts for 50-60% of blood volume; 90% of plasma is water; higher concentration of dissolbed oxygen and carbon dioxide; plasma proteins do not pass through capillary walls
3 primary types of plasma proteins...
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
GLOBULINS
35% of plasma proteins; include immunoglobulins which attack foreign proteins and pathogens; include transport globulins which bind ions, hormones, and other components
FIBRINOGEN
4% of plasma proteins; converted to fibrin during clotting; removal of fibrinogen leaves serum
ALBUMINS
60% of plasma proteins; transport fatty acids, thyroid hormones, and steroid hormones
Measuring RBCs:
-RBC Count & Normal amt
-Hematocrit (packed cell volume, PCV) & Normal Count
RBC Count--reports # of RBCs in 1 microliter whole blood
[male:4.5-6.3 million; female:4-5.5 million]
Hematocrit--percentage of RBCs in centrifuged whole blood
[male:4-52; female:3-47]
Structure of RBCs
biconcave disc, providing a lg surface to volume ratio; make up 99.9% of the formed elements; shape allows RBCs to stack, bend, and flex; lack organelles; typically degenerate in about 120 days.
Shape of a Sickle Cell
Half-moon---make it clog easily...blah blah blah
RBC Production:

What's erythropoeisis?
formation of new red blood cells; occurs in red bone marrow; process speeds up w/presence of EPO (hormone); go on to reticulocyte and erythroblast stages until fully mature
Components:

Building RBCs requires...
amino acids, iron, vitabin B12 & B5, and folic acid (all from diet)
Hemoglobin
(Hb) acct. for 95% of proteins in RBCs; a globular protein, formed from 2 pairs of polypeptide subunits; each subunit contains a molecule of hemem which reversibly binds to an 02 molecule; damaged or dead RBCs are recycled by phagocytes; they transport respiratory gases and a normal male has 14-18 g/dl whole blood
Hb Structure
4 globular protein subunits each with 1 molecule of heme, each heme contains 1 iron ion, which easily associate with oxygen (oxyhemoglobin) or dissociate with oxygen (deoxyhemoglobin)
Fetal Hb
strong form of hemoglobin found in embryos; takes oxygen from mother's hemoglobin
Carbaminohemoglobin
w/low oxygen (peripheral capillaries) hemoglobin releases oxygen and bins carbon dioxide and carries it to lungs
RBC Life Span and Circulation
replaced at rate of approx. 3 million new blood cell entering circulation/second; replaced before they hemolyze; components of hb are individually recycled (heme stripped of Fe and converted to biliverdin then bilirubin) Fe is recycled by being stored in phagocytes, or transported throughout the blood stream bound to transferrin
Recycling RBCs
1% of circulating RBCs wear out per day (about 3 million RBCs/second); Macrophages of liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor RBCs and engulf RBCs before membranes rupture (hemolyze)
Fe Recycling
to transport proteins (transferrin) and to storage proteins (feritin and hemosiderin)
Breakdown of biliverdin
biliverdin (green) is converted to bilirubin (yellow)
bilirubin is...
excreted by liver (bile); jaundice is caused by bilirubin buildup; converted to intestinal bacteria to urobilins and stercobilins
blood types are determined how?
genetically by presence/absence of RBC surface antigens (A,B,Rh)
Surface Antigens
cell surface proteins that identify cells to immune system; normal cells are ignored and foreign cells attacked
4 basic blood types
A (surface antigen A); B ("B); AB ("AB); 0 (neither A or B)
Agglutinogens
antigens on surface of RBCs; screened by immune system; plasma antibodies attack (agglutinate) foreigh antigens
The Rh Factor
also called D antigen; either Rh+ oro Rh-; only sensitized Rh- blood has anti-Rh antibodies
Rh Factors and Pregnancy
first time difference ok, second time difference NOT ok
Cross-Reaction
also called transfusion reaction (given wrong blood-type); plasma antibody (agglutinin); blood will agglutinate and hemolyze; if donor and recipient blood types not compatible
Cross-Match Test
performed on donor and recipient blood for compatibility; w/out cross-match, type 0- is universal donor
WBC
also called leukocytes; have nuclei and other organelles; defend body against pathogens; remove toxins, wastes, and abnormal or damaged cells; capable of amoeboid movement (margination) and positive chemotaxis; some are capable of phagocytosis
WBC 5 Types
neutrophil (first cell to reach cut--dies and releases chemical signal); eosinophil and basophil (granulocytes); monocyte and lymphocyte
differential spread means...
looking at different types
platelets
flattened discs; circulate for 9-12 days before being removed by phagocytes
platelet functions
transport chemicals imp. to blood clotting; forming temporary patch in walls of damaged blood cells; contracting after a clot has formed
platelet production
(thrombocytopoiesis) 300,000 platelets in a microliter; megakaryocytes release platelets into circulating blood
hemostasis does what? what are the three stages?
prevents loss of blood; vascular, platelet, and coagulation
Vascular Phase
of hemostasis; local blood vessel constriction (vascular spasm)
Platelet phase
hemostasis; platelets are activated, aggregate at the site, adhere to the damaged surfaces
Coagulation phase
factors released by platelets and endothelial cells interact w/cloting factors to form a clot; suspended fibrinoge is converted to large insoluble fibrin fibers
Clot Retraction
final phase of healing; platelets contract and pull the edges of the vessel together
Age-Related Changes in the Blood
decreased hematocrit; constriction or blockage of peripheral veins by a thrombus (stationary blood clot)--becomes detached and passes through heart