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27 Cards in this Set

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A substance that causes an allergic reaction.
allergen
A disease of the lungs in which muscle spasm in the small air passageways and the production of large amounts of mucus result in airway obstruction.
asthma
A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of blood vessels, forming plaque, which eventually leads to partial or complete blockage of blood flow. An atherosclerotic plaque can also become a site where blood clots can form, brea
atherosclerosis
A condition characterized by a chronically high blood level of carbon dioxide in which the respiratory center no longer responds to high blood levels of carbon dioxide.
carbon dioxide retention
Irritation of the major lung passageways, from either infectious disease or irritants such as smoke.
chronic bronchitis
A slow process of dilation and disruption of the airways and alveoli, caused by chronic bronchial obstruction.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A viral infection usually associated with swollen nasal mucous membranes and the production of fluid from the sinuses and nose.
common cold
An infectious disease of the upper respiratory system that may cause partial airway obstruction and is characterized by a barking cough; usually seen in children.
croup
An infectious disease in which a membrane lining the pharynx is formed that can severely obstruct passage of air into the larynx.
diphtheria
Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
dyspnea
A blood clot or other substance in the circulatory system that travels to a blood vessel where it causes blockage.
embolus
A disease of the lungs in which there is extreme dilation and eventual destruction of pulmonary alveoli with poor exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; it is one form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
emphysema
An infection of the soft tissue in the area above the vocal cords.
epiglottitis
Rapid or deep breathing that lowers blood carbon dioxide levels below normal.
hyperventilation
A condition in which the body's cells and tissues do not have enough oxygen.
hypoxia
Backup system to control respirations when oxygen levels fall.
hypoxic drive
The heart muscle.
myocardium
A collection of fluid between the lung and chest wall that may compress the lung.
pleural effusion
Sharp, stabbing pain in the chest that is worsened by a deep breath or other chest wall movement; often caused by inflammation or irritation of the pleura.
pleuritic chest pain
An infectious disease of the lung that damages lung tissue.
pneumonia
A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space.
pneumothorax
A buildup of fluid in the lungs, usually as a result of congestive heart failure.
pulmonary edema
A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.
pulmonary embolism
Cracking, rattling breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; also called crackles.
rales
Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the airways.
rhonchi
A harsh, high-pitched inspiratory sound that is often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction; may sound like crowing and be audible without a stethoscope.
stridor
A high-pitched, whistling breath sound, characteristically heard on expiration in patients with asthma or COPD.
wheeze