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40 Cards in this Set

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What type of stuides are typically quantitative?
Clinical trials
Evaluation research
Outcomes research
Surveys
What type of studies can be quantitative or qualitative?
Case Studies
Secondary Analyses
Methodologic Research
Studies that develop clinical interventions and test their effectiveness are?
Clinical trials
Phase 1 of a Full Clinical Trial
Finalizes the intervention. Typically uses pre experimental design. Focuses on developing the best possible treatment
Phase 2 of a Full Clinical Trial
Seeks preliminary evidence of effectiveness. Often considered pilot test of treatment.
Phase III of a Full Clinical Trial
fully tests the treatment via a randomized clinical trial (RCT); often multi-site. Objective is to determine the efficacy of the innovation compared to the standard treatment or an alternative counterfactual.
Phase IV of a Full Clinical Trial
Focuses on long-term consequences of the intervention. Includes both benefits and side effects. May use nonexperimental, pre-experimental, or quasi-experimental design.
What type of research examines how well a specific program, practice, procedure, or policy is working?
Evaluation Research
__________are sometimes evaluations of an intervention or program.
Clinical trials
Can some ecaluations be clinical trials?
Yes
What are the four types of evaluations?
1.Process or Implementation Analysis
2.Outcome Analysis
3.Impact Analysis
4.Cost-Benefit Analysis
What type of evaluation yields descriptive information about process of implenmenting a new program and about how a program operates?
Process or Implementation Analysis
What type of evaluation seeks preliminary evidence about program success and tends to be descriptive commonly using before-after designs?
Outcome Analysis
What type of evaluation yeilds information about a program’s net effects and goals are to attribute a casual connection between outsomes and the intervention?
Impact Analysis
What type of evaluation asses monetary consequences of a program and is typically done in connection with impact analysis and phase III of clinical trials?
Cost-Benefit Analysis
What type of research is designed to document the quality and effectiveness of health care and nursing services?
Outcomes Research
Tools of Outcomes Research include:
Classification systems and taxonomies of nursing actions and diagnoses (e.g., NANDA) and patient outcomes (e.g., NOC)
Outcomes research overlaps with evaluation research. How is outcomes research different?
It is a more global assessment of health care services.
What type of research Obtains information (via self-reports) on the prevalence, distribution, and interrelations of variables in a population and ii. Collect information on people’s actions, knowledge, intentions, opinions, and attitudes?
Survey Research
What are self reports?
Respondents answering questions posed by researchers
Are surveys better suited to extensive rather or intensive analysis?
Extensive analysis
What are the modes of collecting survey data?
1. Personal (face-to-face) interviews
2. Telephone interviews
3. Self-administered questionnaires
4. Internet (web) surveys
Personal (face-to-face) interviews
interviewers meet in person with respondant. these are rather costly because of the time it requires.
What is the best method of collecting survey data.
Personal (face-to-face) interviews
Telephone Interviews
Less costly and less effectivemethod of gather survey data. convient way is interviewer is short, specific, and not too personnal.
Telephone intervies may be difficult for what two groups of people? Why?
Low-income people because they do not always have a tlelphone and the elders because they may have hearing problems.
Self-administered questionnaires
Economical but not appropriate for some groups of people such as children and elders. Generally distributed through the mail.
Can surveys be distributed on the internet?
Yes
What is an in-depth investigations of a single entity or small number of entities (people, groups, communities where researchers obtain a wealth of descriptive information and may examine relationships among different phenomena or examine trends over time?
Case Studies
What is the biggest criticism concerns of case studies?
Generalizability
Studies that use previously gathered data to address new questions is?
Secondary Analysis
What makes Secondary Analysis cost effecitve?
Useing existing data because data collection is the most time consuming and expensive part of research.
What type of research investigatesof the methods of obtaining, organizing, and analyzing data and addresses the development, validation, and evaluation of research tools or methods?
Methodologic Research
What do qualitative methodologic issues arise from?
The context substantive study rather than having a study originate as a purely methodologic endeavor
What do quantitative methodologic studies focus on?
On instrument development and testing
Testing the effectiveness of stipends in facilitating recruitment would be an example of what type of research?
Qualitative Methodologic Research
Research designs that blend qualitative and quantitative data and strategies in a single study or coordinated set of studies are?
Multimethod (Mixed Method) Research
What are some advantages of Multimethod Research?
Complementarity- represents words and numbers
Incrementality-progress on a topic relys on multiple feedback loops
Enhanced validity- researcher can be more confident when hypothesis or models are supported by multiple types of data
Creating new frontiers-inconsistant findings with the two can lead to insight that can push a line of inquiry even further
What are the applications of Multimethod Research? (What are the goals)
Instrument development
Hypothesis generation and testing
Illustration, clarification, and amplification
Understanding relationships and causal processes
Theory building, testing, and refinement
What are 3 common strategies to the mixed method? (How researchers combine qualitative and quantitative methods)
~Adding qualitative methods to a survey
~Embedding quantitative measures into an ethnography
~Embedding qualitative approaches into a clinical trial or evaluation