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189 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is resistance?
hindrance to charge flow
NAME
is a hindrance to charge flow
resistance
R=
resistance
What is a insulator?
substance w high eletrical resistance
NAME
is a substance w high eletrical resistance
insulator
What is a conductor?
is a substance w low eletrical resistance
NAME
is a substance w a low eletrical resistance
conductor
NAME
reflects the flow of ions rather than eletrons
eletrical current and the body
The eletrical current and the body reflects the (1)rather than electrons
flow of ions
When is there potential on either side of the membrane?
(1)the number of ions is different across the membrane (2)the membrane provides a resistance to ion flow
When is a gated channel closed?
when a neurotransmitter is not bound to a extracellular receptor
When a neurotransmitter is not bound to a extracellular receptor then (1)
the gated channel is open
Give a ex of a gated channel
Na K
T or F
Na cannot enter the cell and K cannot exit the cell
true
Can Na exit the cell?
no
Can K+ leave the cell?
no
When does a gated channel open?
when a neurotransmitter is attached to the receptor
When a neurotransmitter is attached to the receptor, the gate is (1)
open
Na (1) the cell and K+ (2) the cell, once the gated channel is open
(1)enters (2)exits
What are the different types of plasma membrane channels?(5)
(1)passive channels (2)chemically gated channels (3)voltage gated channels (4)mechanically gated channels
NAME
is sometimes called the leakge channel
passive channel
passive channels are also called (1)
leakge channel
What is a passive channel?
is a channel that i always open
NAME
is a channel that is always open
passive channel
What is chemically gated channel?
one that open w binding of a specfic neurotransmitter
NAME
is one that opens w the binding of a specifc neurotransmitter
chemically gated channel
What is voltage gated channel?
is one that opens and closes in response to membrane potential
NAME
is one that opens and closes in response to membrane potential
voltage gated channel
What is a mechinally gated channel?
is one that opens and closes in response to physical deformation of receptors
NAME
is one that opens and closes in response to physcial deformation of receptors
mechnially gated channels
What is a ex of voltage gated channel?
Na + channel
NAME
Na+ channel is a ex
voltage gated channel
When is a voltage gated channel closed?
when the intracellular environment is negative
When the intracellular environment is negative, a volatage gated channel will (1)
be closed and Na cannot enter the cell
When the intacellular environment is postive, a voltage gated channel will (1)
open and Na can enter the cell
When is a voltage gated channel open?
when the intracellular environment is postive
What happens when gated channels are open? (4)
(1)ions move quickly across the membrane (2)movement is along thier electrochemical gradients (3)an eletrical current is created (4)voltage changes the membrane
When do ions flow along thier chemical gradient?
when they move from an area of high concentration to a area of low concentration
Ions flow along thier (1) when they move from an area of high concentration to an area of low conentration
checmial gradient
When do ions flow along thier eletrical gradient?
when they move toward an area of oppostie charge
Ions flow along thier (1) when they move toward an area of opposite charge
eletrical gradient
What is the electrical gradient?
the electrical and chemical gradients taken together
NAME
is the eletrical and chemical gradients taken together
electrochemical gradient
What is the resting differnce across the membrane of a resting neuron?
-70 mV
How is the resting membrane potenital of neuron generated?
by different concentrations of Na, K, Cl and protien anions
NAME
is generated by the different concentrations of Na, K, Cl, and protien anion
resting membrane potenital of a neuron
V=
resting membrane potential
A- =
protien anion
What are ionic differences the consequence of (2)
(1)differential permeability of the neurilemma to Na and K (2)operation of the sodium-potassium pumo
NAME
ionic difference ocur because of the operation of the sodium-potassoum pumo and the differential permeability of the neurilemma of Na and K
ionic differences
What are membrane potentials used for?
to integrate, send and receive info
NAME
this are used to integrate, send, and receive info
membrane potentials
What can produce membrane potentials changes? (2)
(1)changes in membrane permeability to ions (2)alterations of ion concentrations across the membrane
Changes in membrane permeability to ions and alterations in concetrations across the membrane can produce (1)
membrane potential changes
What are the differ types of singals? (2)
(1)graded potenitals (2)action potentials
What are three events that can cause changes in membrane potential ? (3)
(1)depolarization (2)repolarization (3)hyperpolarization
Depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization can cause (1)
changes in membrane potenital
What is depolarization?
is when the inside of the membrane becomes less negative
NAME
is when the inside of the membrane becomes less negative
depolarization
What is repolarization?
is when the membrane returns to its resting membrane potenital
NAME
is when the membrane returns to its resting membrane potential
repolarization
What is repolarization?
is when the resting membrane returns to its resting membrane potenital
What is hyperpolarization?
is when the inside of the membrane becomes more negative than the resting potenital
NAME
is when the inside of the membrane becomes more negative than the resting potentital
hyperpolarization
What are graded potenitals?
are short-lived changes in membrane potential
NAME
are short-lived changes in membrane potential
graded potenitals
Graded potenitals (1) in intensity w distance
decrease
(1) decrease in intensity w distance
graded potenitals
Graded potentials decrease in intensity w (1)
distance
Graded potenital's magintude varies w (1)
the strength of the stimulus
graded potenital's (1) varies w the strength of the stimulus
magintude
(1) varies w the strength of teh stimulus
graded potenitals
Suffiently strong (1) can initate action potenitals
graded potenitals
Suffiently stron graded potenitals can initiate (1)
action potenitals
Voltage changes in graded potentials are (1)
decremental
What are decremental?
is voltage changes in graded potentials
(1) is quickly dissipated due to the leaky plasma membrane
current
Current is quickly (1) due to the leaky plasma membrane
dissipated
T or F
current can travel over long distances
false
Can current travel over short distance?
yes
Action potentials are only generated by (1) and (2)
muscles cells and nuerons
(1) are only generated by muscle cells and neurons
action potentials
Aps =
action potential
(1) do not decrease in strength over distance
APs
APs do not (1) in strength over distance
decrease
NAME
are the principal means of neural communication
APs
APs are the principal means of (1)
nueral communication
What is the action potential in a axon of a neuron called?
a nerve impulse
NAME
is the action potential of a axon of a nueron
nerve impulse
What is a nerve impulse?
is the action potential of a axon of a nueron
Na and K channels are (1) at resting state
closed
Na and K channels are closed at (1)
a resting state
(1) accounts for small movements of Na and K
leakage
Leakage accounts for small movements of (1) and (2)
(1)Na (2)K
Each (1) has two voltage-regulated gates
Na
What are the differ types of voltage gated channels for Na?
(1)activation gates (2)inactivation gates
What are activation gates?
are closed in resting state
NAME
are gates that are closed in resting states
activation gates
What are inactivation gates?
are open in resting state
NAME
are gates that are open in resting states
inactivation gates
When Na permeability increases then (1)
membrane potenital reverses
When (1) then membrane potenital reverses
Na permeability increases
for the depolirzation phase to ocur, their must be a (1)
therehold reached
Sodium inactivation gates are (1) during repolarization phase
closed
Membrane permeability to Na declines to (1)
resting levels
When (1) exits the cell, the internal negativity of the resting neuron is restored
K+
when K+ exits the cell, the (1) is restored, during repolariztion phase
the internal negativity of the resting neuron
During hyperpolarization, K gates remain open causing an (1)
excessive efflux of K
During (1), K gates remain open causing an excessive efflux of K
hyperpolarization
the efflux of K causes (1)
hyperpolarization of the membrane
NAME
causes hyperpolarization of the membrane
efflux of K
T or F
during hyperpolarization, the nueron is insensitive to stimulus and depolarization during this time
true
During hyperpolarization, the neuron is (1) to stimulus and depolarization during this time
insenstive
NAME
restores the resting chemical eletrical conditions of the nuerons
repolarization
Repolarization can restore the (1)
resting chemical eletrical conidtions of the nuerons
What are (2) roles of the action potenital of the NaK pump?
(1)repolarization (2)ionic redistrubtion back to resting conidtion is restored
(1) is restored by the Na-K pump
ionic redistribution back to resting conidtions
NAME
can cause a patch of axonal membrane to depolarize
Na influx
Na influx can cause a (1)
patch of axonal membrane to depolarize
Postive ions in the axoplasm move (1)
toward the polarizred portion of the membrane
NAME
(1) in the axoplasm move toward the polarized portion of the membrane
postive ions
(1) move toward the area of greatest negative charge
ions of the extracellular fluid
Ions of the extracellular fluid move toward the area of (1)
greatest negative charge
During the propagation of the action potenital, a (1) is created that depolarizes the adjacent membrane in a foward direction
current
During the propgation of the action potenital, a current is created that (1)
depolarizes the adjacent membrane in a foward direction
The (1) propgantes away from its point of orgin
impulse
The impulse propgantes away from its (1)
point of orgin
(1) moves away from the stimulis
action poteintal
the action potential moves away from the (1)
stimulus
Where sodium gates are closing, Potassium gates are creating a (1)
current
Therehold for the action potenital is established by the (1)
total amount of current flowing through the membrane
(1) is established by the total amount of current flowing through the membrane
therehold for the action potenital
(1) are not relayed into action poteintals
weak stimuli
(1) are relayed into action potential
strong stimuli
What is the all or none phenmoneon?
means that action potentials either happen completely or not all
NAME
means that the action potenitals either happen completly or not all
all or none phenomenon
What do the upward arrows mean?
the stimulis is applied
NAME
means the stimulis is applied
upward arrows
What do the downward arrows mean?
the stimulus is stopped
NAME
means the stimulus is stopped
downward arrows
What do the length of the arrows indicate?
the strength of the stimulus
NAME
indicates the strength of the stimulus
length of the arrows
What do the vertical lines indicate?
the action potentials
NAME
this indicates the action potenital on the graph
vertical lines
What is the absoulte refractory period?
time from the opening of the Na activation gates until the closing of the inactivation gates
NAME
is the time from the opening of the Na acitivation gates until the closing of the inactivation gates
absoulte refractory period
What does the absoulte refractory period do?
(1)prevents the neuron from generating an action potenital (2))ensures that each action potenital is separtate (3)enforces one way transmission of nerve impulses
NAME
prevents the neuron from generating an action potential
absoulte refractory period
NAME
ensures that each action potenital is separate
absoulte refractory period
NAME
enforces one way transmisssion of nerve impulses
absoulte refractory period
What is the relative refractory period?
is the interval following the absoule refractory period when sodium gates are closed, postatssium gates are open and repolarization is occuring
NAME
is teh interval following the absoulte refractory period when sodium gates are closed, K gates are open, and repolarization is occuring
relative refracotry period
When the threshold is elevated, this allows for strong (1) to (2)
strong stimuli to inscrease the frequency of action potenital events
Conduction velocties vary (1)
widely amoung neurons
(1) vary amoung neurons
conduction velocites
How is the rate of implulse propagation determined? (2)
(1)axon diamter (2)presence of myelin sheath
NAME
is determined by the axon diamter and presence of myelin sheath
rate of impulse propgation
Current passes through a mylenintated axon only at the (1)
the nodes of ranvier
Current passes through a (1) only at the nodes of ranvier
myleinated axon
What is the axon diamter?
is the larger diameter and the faster impulse
NAME
is the larger diamter and the faster impulse
axon diamter
(1) dramitcally increases the impulse speed
myleniation
Myelination dramtically increases the (1)
impulse speed
NAME
is the faster impulse
axon diamter
(1) are concentrated at the nodes of ranvier
voltage gated Na channels
Voltage gated Na channelsare conecntrated at the (1)
nodes of ranvier
Action potenitals are triggered only at teh (1)and (2)
nodes (2) jump from one node to the next
NAME
are triggered only at the the nodes and jump from one node to the next
action potenitals
What is saltory conudction?
is when current passes through a myelinated sheath axon only at the nodes of ranvier
NAME
is when the current passes through a myleinated sheath axon only at the nodes of ranvier
saltory conduction
NAME
is much faster than conduction along the unmyelinted axons
salatory conduction
What does MS stand for?
multiple scleoris
What is MS?
is an automimmune disease that mainly affects young adults
NAME
is an autoimmune disease that mainly affects young adults
MS
What are the symptopm of of MS?
include visaul disurbances, weakness, loss of muscular control, and urinary incontinence
NAME
include visual disturbances, weakness, loss of musclular control, and urinary incontinence
MS
The nerve fibers of people w MS are (1) and the mylein sheath's in the CNS become (2)
(1)severed (2)nonfunctional scelorses
NAME
the nerve fibers of people w this disease are severed, and the mylein sheath's in the CNS become nonfunctional scleroses
MS
The (1) of people w MS, are severed and the (2) in the CNS become nonfunctional scelorses
(1) nerve fibers (2)mylein sheaths
In people w MS, (1) and (2) occurs
Shunting and short circuting of nerve impulses
NAME
in people w this disease, there is shunting and short-circuting of nerve impulses
MS
What are some treatments for MS?
(1)interferon beta-1a and 1-b (2)Avonex (3)Betaseran (4)copazone
NAME
treatment include interferon beta 1-a and 1-b, Avonex, beataseran, and copazone
MS
How do the drugs work that treat MS? (3)
(1)hold symptoms at bay (2)reduce complications (3)reduce disability
NAME
hold symptoms at bay, reduce complications, and reduce disability
drugs that treat MS
How are nerve fiber classifed? (3)
(1)diamter (2)degree of myelination (3)speed of conduction
NAME
are classfied according to diamter, degree of myelination, and speed of conduction
nerve fibers
What are synapses?
is a junction that mediates info transfer from one neuron to another nueron or from one neuron to an effector cell
NAME
is a junction that mediates info transfer from one nueron to another neuron or from one neuron to an effector cell
synapses