Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
form or composition (# of family members, siblings, relatives, single parent or two parents.)
Family Structure
Created by the family's psychosocial interactions and its economic circumstances (loving, supportive, enmeshed, financial problems, conflicts regarding expectations, roles, rules, etc.)
Family atmosphere
What are the two majaor, interrleated components of the child's environment in the home?
Family Structure and Family Atmosphere
Urbanization, family size, composition, women's employment, divorce, remarriage are examples of what?
Historical trends
A major factor in the change that occured in the western societies-
decline of the family farm
Another factor in the change that occured in the western societies dealt with the employment of whom?
Women in the workforce. (families have fewer siblings, limited family resources, child is cared for by someone other than parent.)
The third factor in the change that occured in the western societies dealt with the rise in what?
Immigration. (increase in diversity, variety of family types, changing roles, quality of parent-child interaction.)
What does the "family today" consist of?
Traditional and Non traditional families
This is the dominant family organization in the US
Nuclear family; traditional
This type of family includes the adoption of children, one-parent families, gay-lesbian parents, grandparents raising the children, or blended families.
Nontraditional family
True or False: There is little or no effect of early maternal employment on children's compliance, behavior, problems, self-esteem, cognitive development, or academic achievement.
What age are children placed in childcare?
3 months old
What is the most important element of quality caregiving?
The caregiver; stimulating and responsive
What four characteristics are influential for children in childcare?
Family income, the mother's vocabulary, the home environment, and the amount of mental stimulation from the mother.
Define 'socialization'
The process by which children develop habits, skills, values, behaviors, and motives common to their culture.
What is the primary agent of socialization?
The name of the couple that performed the monkey study with the wire/terry cloth monkeys.
Harry, Margaret Harlow
What were the Harlow's trying to demonstrate by conducting this experiment?
They were trying to demonstrate the importance of early social learning.
Which parents frequent and positive involvment is directly related to a child's well-being and cognitive/social development?
The Father
Define 'internalization'
The process by which children accept societal standards as their own.
This theorist stated that there are eight psychosocial stages during child development.
Erik Erikson
What is the first psychosocial stage?
Trust v. Mistrust
Which stage occurs from 18 months to 3 years?
Autonomy v. shame/doubt
Autonomy v. shame/doubt is marked by this shift...
External control to self-control
Define 'negativism'
The tendency to shout "No" in an attempt to resist authority.
Define 'self-regulation'
The child's independent control of behavior to conform to understand social expectations. Requires flexibility and ability to wait for gratification.
What age determines the transitional stage of coregulation?
Middle childhood
Define 'coregulation'
Parent and child share power: parents oversee, but children exercise moment-to-moment self-regulation.
How many styles did Baumrind present?
Define 'authoritarian parenting'
Emphasizes obedience, high control with little warmth. (Parents make child follow rules; firm control)
Define 'authoritative parenting'
Emphasizes respect for the child's individuality with an effort to instill social values, combines a fair degree of parental control with being warm and responsive to children.
Define 'permissive/indulgent parenting'
Emphasizes self-expression and self-regulation, offers warmth and caring, but little parental control.
Define 'neglectful or uninvolved parents'
Provide neither warmth or control.
Define 'physical abuse'
Injury to the body
Define 'neglect'
Failure to meet a child's basic physical, emotional, or educational needs.
Define 'sexual abuse'
Sexual activity involving a child and another person.
Define 'emotional maltreatment'
acts of abuse or neglect that may cause behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or mental disorders.
Almost 58% of reported cases of maltreatment involve ...
Define 'abusive families'
Anxious, substance abuse, depressed, marital problems, hostile, physically controlling, loses self-control, beats the child, parent thinks poorly of themselves, can't handle negative emotions.
Define 'neglectful families'
Apathetic, irresponsible, emotionally withdrawn, incompetent, distance themselves from children, critical, lack of communication, parents were neglected, not aware of child's needs, lack of father's involvment financially, etc.