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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Glycolysis converts glucose to what
two pyruvates
glycolysis yields what high energy compounds
ATP and NADH
What are the five steps to the preparatory phase of glycolysis
-phosphorylation of glucose using ATP
-Isomeration of glucose-6-P to Fructose-6-P
-Phosphorylation of Fructose-6-P
-Cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
-interconversion of triose phosphates
Phosphorylation of glucose is achieved by what enzyme
Hexokinase
Isomerization of glucose-6-phosphate is achieved by what enzyme
glucose-6-phosphate isomerase
Phosphorylation of Fructose-6-P is achieved by what enzyme
phosphofructokinase
What reaction cleaves Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, what are the products, and which way is the reaction favored?
-Aldolase reaction
-Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are the products
-reaction favors formation of Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
What enzyme is involved in interconversion of Dihydroxyacetone phosphate to Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Triose phosphate isomerase
The reaction catalyzed by glycerealdehyde-3-P dehydrogenase involves what two types of reactions and yields what two high energy products?
oxidation and phosphoryation

yields 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and NADH
Changing from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate is catalyzed by what, yields what high energy compound, and is an example of what type of reaction?
-catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase
-yields ATP
-is an example of substrate level phosphorylation
Phosphoglycerate mutase is involved in what reaction
Reaction changing 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate
What is the product and reactant of the Enolase reaction
2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate using enolase and Mg2+ and releasing H2O
What kind of reaction is the pyruvate kinase reaction and what products does it yield?
example of substrate level phosphorylation

yields pyruvate and ATP
What is pyruvate turned into in yeast and submerged plants
Ethanol
What is pyruvate turned into in muscles under rigorous exercise
Lactate
What are pyruvates turned into in aerobic conditions
Acetyl CoA for use in citric acid cycle
Glucose-6-P regulates what catalyst in what reaction?
regulates hexokinase in phosphorylation of glucose
What two things negatively regulate phosphofructokinase and what two thing positively regulate it?
Negative - high ATP and Citrate levels

Positive - high AMP and Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels
What positively and negatively regulates the pyruvate kinase reaction?
negative - high levels of ATP
positive - high levles of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
What is the pasteur effect in relation of regulation of glycolysis
inhibition of glycolysis by oxygen through inhibition of PFK by increase in ATP/AMP ratio
How does insulin regulate glucose uptake and in turn glycolysis
insulin increases the levels of membrane bound glucose transporter (GLUT)