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25 Cards in this Set

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ANC (AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS)
A group of black Africans that opposed apartheid. The government responded to their passive resistance during the 1950s, with arrests and violence. The ANC became more agressive in their protests
YORUBA
One of the three major ethnic groups Nigerians belong to. Yoruba men grew yams, peanuts, millet, and beans. Yoruba women specialized in marketing and trading. Yoruba society was organized around powerful city-states
CASH CROPS
A crop grown only for sale. European and African business owners started large plantations. They grew tropical crops-sugar cane, coffee, and cacao-for export
HAUSA
The largest ethnic group in Nigeria. Almost all Hausa are Muslims. Most live in farming villages in northern Nigeria. Crafts such as leatherworking, weaving and blacksnithing have been passed down through generations
QUEEN AMINA
A warrior in the Zazzua cavarly. She announced her intention to force other west African rulers to honor her and allow Hausa traders to travel safely through their lands. She intends to build earthen defense walls around all of Zazzua
COUP D'ETAT
An overthrow of government by force. African governments have been ousted by coups d'etat. A series of coups d'etat toppled each established government
ECOWAS
The Economic Community of West African Staes. The ECOWAS was formed in 1975. Trade was improved within Western Africa and with countries outside the religon
HARAMBEE
A swhahili term that means "pulling together" and that is used in reference to Kenyan schools built by Kenyan people rather than by the government
SHAKA ZULU
A man named Shaka Zulu became chief of the Zulu. He led his people in a series of wars to expand Zulu territory. He held unlimited power. Anyone who disagreed with him could be killed
MEDIATE
To help find a peaceful solution. The OAU also mediates disputes between countries. The OAU would like to establish a single currency for Africa
LUCY
The discovery of a humanlike being died beside a lake in Africa three and a half million years ago. The skeleton was a female that had been approximately three feet tall and she might have walked on two legs
MASAI
Once lived in nearly all of Kenya and about half of what is nowT anzania in Eastern Africa. They raized grazing animals. They were nomads who moved from place to place for their animals. They began fighting amoung themselves over water and grazing rights
WILLEM DE KLERK
A white South African who opposed apartheid, became president in 1989. He helped to repeal many apartheid laws and to release from jail, those who had worked to eliminate the policy. He helped obtain, Nelson Mandela's release and they shared the nobel peace prize in 1993
NELSON MANDELA
He led the fight against apartheid and was in prison for 26 years. He emerged as a leader of the ANCand the anti-apartheid movement. With the help of Willem de Klerk they both ended apartheid
HUTU
The ethnic majority. Soon the Hutu were resentful and a violent conflict began
HARAMBEE SCHOOLS
Kenyans value education so much that some have built their own schools in places where the government has not started them yet. These schools are called Harambee schools
AKSUM EMPIRE
A trading empire developed in what is now Ethiopia. The Aksum Empire was started approximately 2,ooo years ago. Christianity spread
KINSHIP
Marriage and kinship are changing in Eastern and Southern Africa as people move to cities. Kinship means family relationships. Economic activity brings people together; as they trade goods they trade ideas. Their behavior and attitudes change as well
SANCTON
A penalty imposed a nation that is violating international laws. In 1985, the United States and Great Britain agreed to impose economic sanctions against South Africa
SWAHILI
A Bantu language spoken in Africa. Swhalii and Emglish are the official languages of Kenya. Many people also know Swhalil and use it to groups
SHONA PEOPLE
The Shona was of the great trading empires of the lower Zambezi River from about 1100 to 1500. Its people created walled stone structures
WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN RWANDA
Rwandan women could not own land, hold jobs, or participate in government. In 1991, a new constitution was passed. Women had the right to own property and hold jobs. Men were killed in the civil war so women were heads of houses. Women can own and inherit property
ZULU
Zulu migrated to Southern Africa about 1,800 years ago. They have traditionally lived in settled villages, grown grains, and raised cattle
RITE OF PASSAGE
Because age is so important, a ceremony which is called the rite of passage, marks the transition from life to another. A major rite of passage occurs when young men and women are recognized as adults
WOLE SOYINISA
Wole Soyinisa is a Yoruba man. In 1986, he became the first black African to receive the Nobel Prize in literature. He has written novels, essays, and poetry. He has also been a voice, and freedom of speech