• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/92

Click to flip

92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Inventor of the fly shuttle in 1733
Kay
Man who patented the water frame in 1769, which was first powered by water power but later in the 1780s he introduced the steam engine to drive his spinning machinery
Arkwright
An ingenious Connecticut inventor who produced the first cotton gin in 1793
Whitney
Invented the first economically significant steam engine which was used to drive pumps in the coal mines in 1702
Newcomen
A technician who began to make improvements on Newcomen's engine who formed a buisness partnership with Boulton in 1763
Watt
Invented the first fully satisfactory locomotive called the Rocket in 1829, which reached a speed of 16 mph and met safety requirements as well
Stephenson
The man who used the steam engine to successfully propel river boats notably on the Hudson river in 1807
Fulton
The "gentleman of England" who basically controlled the English government from 1688-1832; the landowning class
Squirearchy
Acts passed which authorized the enclosure by fences, walls, or hedges, open the old common lands and unfenced open fields; caused land to come under private ownership and individual management
Enclosure Acts
Invented in 1733 where only one person was needed to weave cloth on a loom
Fly Shuttle
Invented in the 1760s it was a kind of mechanized spinning wheel that enabled workers to increase their production of yarn
Spinning Jenny
Invented in 1760 by Richard Arkwright which was a device for the multiple spinning of many threads
Water Frame
Invented in 1793 which sped up the removal of seeds which greatly increased the output of cotton
Cotton Gin
A loom operated by mechanical or electrical power used shortly after 1800
Power Loom
The first fully satisfactory locomotive made in 1829 by George Stephenson
Rocket
A "school" of economic thought created by Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, advocating minimum governmental intervention, free enterprise, and free trade, considering labor the source of wealth and dealing with problems concerning overpopulation
Classical Economists
A creation by Malthus and Ricardo which followed the practices of Adam Smith such as the policy of laissez-faire
Manchester School
A law of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker. The theory was first named by Lassalle and Malthus in the mid-nineteenth century
"Iron Law of Wages"
British poet acclaimed as one of the leading figures of the romantic movement. Works include Childe Harold, The Prisoner of Chillon (1816), and the epic satire Don Juan (1819-1824)
Byron
British romantic poet whose works include "To a Skylark" (1820), the lyric drama Prometheus Unbound (1820), and "Adonais" (1821), an elegy to John Keats.
Shelley
British poet whose most important collection, Lyrical Ballads (1793) which helped establish romanticism in England. He was appointed poet laureate in 1843.
Wordsworth
French writer who went into exile after Napoleon III seized power (1851), returning to France in 1870. His novels include The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831) and Les Misérables (1862)
Hugo
French political leader, diplomat, and writer considered a forerunner of romanticism. His works include Atala (1801), The Genius of Christianity (1802), and Memoirs from beyond the Tomb, published posthumously.
Chateaubriand
French writer whose novels, plays, and essays concern the freedom and independence of women. Among her works are the novels Lélia (1833) and Consuelo (1842).
Sand
German poet, dramatist, and historian. A leading romanticist, he is best known for his historical plays, such as Don Carlos (1787) and Wallenstein (1798-1799), and for his long didactic poems.
Schiller
(1772-1829) A philosopher, poet, and critic whose essays formed the intellectual basis of German romanticism.
Schlegel
(1771-1858) One of the first socialists and first cotton lords of Manchester who created a model community for his employees, providing fair wages and shorter hours
Robert Owen
(1760-1825) A nobleman who wrote many books on social problems and was among the first clear exponents of a planned society who argued for the public ownership of capital
Saint-Simon
(1772-1837) A doctrinaire thinker who subjected all social institutions to a sweeping condemnation; and proposed "phalansteries"
Fourier
A socialistic Paris journalist who was editor of the "revue de progres" and author of the "Organization of work" (1839) where he proposed a system of "social workshops"
Blanc
(1805-1872) One of the best known nationalist philosophers in western Europe who spent most of his adult life in exile in France and Enland. He later founded his own society called Young Italy and wrote "The Duties of Man"
Mazzini
Two brothers who published a book of fairy tales in 1812; they were founders of the modern science of camparative linguistics, who traveled about Germany to study the popular dialects and collected folktales
The Brothers Grimm
German idealist philosopher who interpreted nature and human history and culture as expressions of a dialectical process in which Spirit, or Mind, realizes its full potentiality. His major works include The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) and The Philosophy of Right (1821).
Hegel
Economist who in his "National System of Political Economy"(1840), held that political economy as taught in England was applicable to England alone; he became the founder of the historical or institutional school of economics
List
German historian of the 19th century, one of the founders of modern source-based history, he set the tone for much of later historical writing, introducing such ideas as reliance on primary sources (Empiricism), an emphasis on narrative history and especially international politics (Aussenpolitik) he is also considered a founding father of Historism.
von Ranke
A Serb who in 1814 published a grammar of his native tongue and a collection of "Popular Songs and Epics of the Serbs" who worked out a Serbian alphabet
Vuk Karajich
Czech historian who in 1836 published the first volume of his History of Bohemia which was designed to give the Czechs a new pride in their national past, first writing it in German but later rewriting it in Czech
Palacky
A Polish poet and revolutionary who from 1840 to 1844 who taught Slavic literature in France using his lecture platform as a rostrum to deliver pleas for liberational of all peoples and to overthrow autocracy
Mickiewicz
British writer, reformer, and philosopher whose systematic analysis of law and legislation laid the foundations of utilitarianism.
Jeremy Bentham
A term used in England around 1820 when the Philosophical Radicals who professed to deduce the right form of institutions from the fundamental traits of human nature and psychology
Radicalism
A group who first arose in Spain among opponents of the Napoleonic occupation; a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
Liberalism
An economic system in which the production and distribution of goods are controlled substantially by the government rather than by private enterprise, and in which cooperation rather than competition guides economic activity. There are many varieties of socialism. Some socialists tolerate capitalism, as long as the government maintains the dominant influence over the economy; others insist on an abolition of private enterprise
Socialism
An economic system in which the production and distribution of goods are controlled substantially by the government rather than by private enterprise, and in which cooperation rather than competition guides economic activity. There are many varieties of socialism. Some socialists tolerate capitalism, as long as the government maintains the dominant influence over the economy; others insist on an abolition of private enterprise
Romanticism
A movement for granting women political, social, and economic equality with men
Feminism
German for "national spirit"; a conception by Herder
Volksgeist
The policy or doctrine of asserting the interests of one's own nation, viewed as separate from the interests of other nations or the common interests of all nations
Nationalism
A secret nationalist society that was organized in Italy in the time of Napleon
Carbonari
An interpretive method, originally used to relate specific entities or events to the absolute idea, in which some assertible proposition is necessarily opposed by an equally assertible and apparently contradictory proposition, the mutual contradiction being reconciled on a higher level of truth by a third proposition
Hegelian Dialectic
Workshops in the 18th century that promoted socialization
Social Workshops
During the 18th century, scientists and philosophers began to focus on the past of science and inventions
Scientific History
One of a group of mid-19th century Russian intellectuals who favored traditional cultural practices over Western innovations, esp. in political and religious life
Slavophilism
A movement advocating the political and cultural union of Slavic nations and peoples
Pan-Slavism
the doctrine that humanity's obligations are concerned wholly with the welfare of the human race
Humanitarianism
A belief by Republicans which later shaded off into socialism
Republicanism
King of France (1814-1824). His reign was interrupted by Napoleon (1815), but he was returned to his rule after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo in the same year
Louis XVIII
King of France from 1824-1830, attempted to restore absolutism by dissolving the Chamber of Deputies and terminating freedom of the press; he also abdicated as a result of the July Revolution of 1830 and later fled to England.
Charles X
Austrian politician who helped form the Quadruple Alliance which defeated Napoleon I
Metternich
(1798–1855) Polish poet who was arrested in 1823
Mickiewicz
A kind of German youth movement, which held a nationwide congress at Wartburg in 1817; students listened to rousing speeches by patriotic professors, marched in "Teutonic" costume, and burned reactionary books
Burschenschaft
Resolutions used by the ministers of nine German states at a meeting called at Carlsbad in 1819 by Prince Metternich whose aim was to suppress revolutionary activities in the universities
Carlsbad Decrees
A series of British laws enforced before 1846 which regulated the grain trade and restricted imports of grain
Corn Law
Occurred at St Peter's Field, Manchester, England, August 16, 1819 when cavalry charged into a crowd of 80,000 gathered at a meeting to demand the reform of parliamentary representation; 11 were killed and 400 wounded
Peterloo Massacre
A group of revolutionaries who plotted to assassinate the whole cabinet at a dinner but were caught in Cato Street in London in 1820; five were hanged
Cato Street Gang
Passed by Parliament in 1819 which outlawed "seditious and blasphemous" literature, put a heavy stamp tax on newspapers, authorized the search of private houses for arms, and rigidly restricted the right of public meeting.
Six Acts
1792–1828, Greek patriot and revolutionary leader.
Ypsilanti
South American revolutionary leader who defeated the Spanish in 1819, was made president of Greater Colombia (now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and helped liberate (1823-1834) Peru and Bolivia.
Bolivar
American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru 1821–22.
San Martin
Czar of Russia (1825-1855) who suppressed the Decembrist movement and led Russia into the Crimean War (1853-1856)
Nicholas I
League formed by the sovereigns of Europe in 1815 with the hope of promoting Christian brotherhood and the object of repressing democratic revolutions and institutions. The English and Turkish rulers and Pope Pius VII did not join the league
Holy Alliance
A conference of the Quadruple Alliance to discuss means of suppressing the revolution in Naples of July 1820, and at which the Troppau Protocol was signed on 19 November 1820
Troppau
Met at Verona on October 20, 1822 as part of the series of international conferences or congresses that opened with the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, which had instituted the Concert of Europe at the close of the Napoleonic Wars
Congress of Verona
The policy, as stated by President Monroe in 1823, that the U.S. opposed further European colonization of and interference with independent nations in the Western Hemisphere
Monroe Doctrine
Also known as the Concert of Europe was the balance of power that existed in Europe from the fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the end of the Crimean War. Its founding members were the UK, Austria, Russia and Prussia who were also members of the Quadruple Alliance responsible for the downfall of Napoleon I
Congress System
Took place in Imperial Russia on 14 December, 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession
Decembrist Revolt
King of France (1830-1848). He ruled after the overthrow of the Bourbons in the July Revolution (1830) and abdicated during the Revolution of 1848.
Louis Philippe
British politician who served as foreign secretary (1807-1809 and 1822-1827) and prime minister (1827).
George Canning
British politician. As home secretary (1822-1827 and 1828-1830) he established the London police force (1829) and helped pass the Catholic Emancipation Act (1829). He later served as prime minister (1834-1835 and 1841-1846).
Robert Peel
also known as Ordinances of Saint-Cloud, were a series of decrees set forth by Charles X and Jules Armand de Polignac, the chief minister, in July intended to quell the people of France. However, the ordinances had the opposite effect of angering the French citizens. Journalists gathered in protest at the headquarters of the National daily. The final result was the July Revolution and Charles X's overthrow.
July Ordinances
Officially the Kingdom of the French (French: Royaume des Français), was a period of liberal constitutional monarchy in France under King Louis-Philippe starting with the July Revolution (or Three Glorious Days) of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X and his senior line of the House of Bourbon
July Monarchy
Belgians had always stood stiffly for what they believed in, and chose neutrality during the revolutions of 1830
Belgian Neutrality
a member of a political party in Great Britain from the late 17th century to about 1832 that favored royal authority over Parliament and the preservation of the existing social and political order: succeeded by the Conservative party.
Tory
a member of a major political party (1679–1832) in Great Britain that held liberal principles and favored reforms: later called the Liberal party.
Whig
a political party in Great Britain, formed about 1830 as a fusion of Whigs and Radicals and constituting one of the dominant British parties in the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries.
Liberal Party
a political party in Great Britain founded about 1832 as successor to the Tory party and characterized by moderate progressivism.
Conservative Party
An act that forbade the labor of children less than nine years old in the textile mills and was the first effective piece of legislation on the subject because it provided for paid inspectors and procedures for enforcement
Factory Act of 1833
This was abolished in 1833 in the entire British Empire to promote equality among all people
Abolition of Slavery
an Act of Parliament (2 & 3 Will. IV) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. According to its preamble, the act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting diverse Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament."
Great Reform Bill
Corn Laws were repealed in 1846 and stands as a symbol of the change that had come over England because it reaffirmed the revolutionary consequences of the Reform Bill of 1832
Repeal of Corn Laws
The class that, in contrast to the proletariat or wage-earning class, is primarily concerned with property values.
Bourgeoisie
Law that corrected crying evils of the old poor laws that had left millions of people in habitual poverty but did nothing constructive to relieve productive workers suffering from occasional or cyclical unemployment.
Poor Law of 1834
The principles or movement of a party of political reformers, chiefly workingmen, in England from 1838 to 1848: so called from the document (People's Charter or National Charter) that contained a statement of their principles and demands.
Chartism
Economic term
Boom-bust