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22 Cards in this Set

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amniocentesis
A test whereby the physician withdraws a sample of amniotic fluid from a woman's pregnant uterus. The fluid is then tested for genetic or other conditions that may lead to abnormal development of the fetus.
chromosome
Microscopic structures found within the nucleus of plant and animal cells that carry genes responsible for the organism's characteristics.
clone
An organism grown asexually, usually from a single cell of the parent.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
The combination of proteins called nucleotides that comprises an organism's chromosomes.
emancipated minors
Individuals in their mid- to late teens who legally live outside of parents' or guardians' control.
gene
A tiny segment of DNA found on a cell's chromosomes. Each gene holds the formula for making a specific molecule.
genetic counselor
An expert in human genetics who is qualified to counsel individuals who may have inherited genes for certain diseases or conditions.
genetic discrimination
Differential treatment of individuals based on their actual or presumed genetic differences.
genetic engineering
Manipulating DNA within the cells of plants and animals, to ensure that certain harmful traits will be eliminated in offspring and that desirable traits will appear and be passed on.
genetics
The study of heredity.
genome
All the genetic information necessary to create a human being or any other organism.
heredity
The process by which organisms pass genetic traits on to their offspring.
heterologous artificial insemination
Donor sperm is mechanically injected into a woman's vagina to fertilize her eggs.
homologous artificial insemination
The husband's sperm is mechanically injected into his wife's vagina to fertilize her eggs.
Human Genome Project
A scientific project, funded by the US government, begun in 1990 for the purpose of mapping all of a human's genes and successfully completed in 2000.
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
Fertilization that takes place outside a woman's body, literally, "in glass," as in a test tube.
mature minors
Individuals in their mid- to late teens who, for health care purposes, are considered mature enough to comprehend a physician's recommendations and give informed consent.
parens patriae
A legal doctrine that gives the state the authority to act in a child's best interest.
safe haven laws
State laws that allow a mother to abandon a newborn at a fire station, police station, or hospital without legal prosecution or with reduced legal prosecution.
stem cells
Early embryonic cells that have the potential to become any type of body cells.
surrogate
A woman who becomes pregnant, usually by artificial insemination or surgical implantation of a fertilized egg, and bears a child for another woman.
xenotransplantation
Transplanting animal tissues and organs into humans.